10EnglishQuarter 1 – Module 2:Determining the Effect ofTextual Aids on theUnderstanding of a TextCO Q1 English10 Module 2

English – Grade 10Alternative Delivery ModeQuarter 1 – Module 2: Determining the Effect of Textual Aids on the Understanding of a TextFirst Edition, 2021Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work ofthe Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or officewherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Suchagency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders.Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from theirrespective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownershipover them.Published by the Department of EducationSecretary: Leonor Magtolis BrionesUndersecretary: Diosdado M. San AntonioDevelopment Team of the ModuleWriter: Darielle Apilas-BacayanEditor: Patricio Dawaton – Regional EPS-EnglishReviewer: Lillian S. Pagulongan – Division EPS-EnglishManagement Team: Estela L. Cariño, EdD, CESO III - Regional DirectorCarmel F. Meris – Chief Education Supervisor - CLMDRosita C. Agnasi, Ed.D. – Regional EPS-LRMDSBenjamin Dio-al – Regional ADM Focal PersonJuliet H. Sannad, Ed.D. – Chief Education Supervisor, CID, SDO-BaguioArmi Victoria A. Fiangaan – Division EPS-LRMDSPrinted in the Philippines byDepartment of Education – Cordillera Administrative RegionOffice Address:Telefax:E-mail Address:Wangal, La Trinidad, Benguet(074)[email protected]

10EnglishQuarter 1 – Module 2:Determining the Effect ofTextual Aids on theUnderstanding of a Text

Introductory MessageThis Self-Learning Module (SLM) is prepared so that you, our dear learners,can continue your studies and learn while at home. Activities, questions, directions,exercises, and discussions are carefully stated for you to understand each lesson.Each SLM is composed of different parts. Each part shall guide you step-bystep as you discover and understand the lesson prepared for you.Pre-tests are provided to measure your prior knowledge on lessons in eachSLM. This will tell you if you need to proceed on completing this module or if youneed to ask your facilitator or your teacher’s assistance for better understanding ofthe lesson. At the end of each module, you need to answer the post-test to self-checkyour learning. Answer keys are provided for each activity and test. We trust that youwill be honest in using these.In addition to the material in the main text, Notes to the Teacher are alsoprovided to our facilitators and parents for strategies and reminders on how they canbest help you on your home-based learning.Please use this module with care. Do not put unnecessary marks on any partof this SLM. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises and tests. Andread the instructions carefully before performing each task.If you have any questions in using this SLM or any difficulty in answering thetasks in this module, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator.Thank you.

What I Need to KnowThis module was designed and written with you in mind. Primarily, its scopeis to teach you how to use textual aids and realize its effect in your understanding ofa certain text.While going through this module, you are expected to have:1. use various textual aids in understanding a text; and2. determine the effect of these textual aids in understanding a text.What I KnowActivity 1: Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write thechosen letter on your answer sheet.1. What do we call the tools that come in different forms and their mainobjective is to help readers have a clearer meaning of the given text?a. textual aidsc. textual explanationsb. guide questionsd. reader’s interpretations2. Which of the following does NOT belong to the tools that can help readershave a clearer meaning?a. graphsc. animationsb. diagramsd. illustrations3. If the sensory images help readers understand literary texts such as poemsand short stories, then which type of texts do textual aids help readersunderstand?i. fictional textsii. scientific textsiii. nonfiction textsiv. journalistic textsa. i and iic. ii, iii and ivb. iii and ivd. i, ii, iii and iv1CO Q1 English10 Module 2

4. If the text has the following lines: “From Session Road, head south on UpperSession Road, slight right onto Kalaw Street ”, what kind of textual aid willbe best fitted to match the text?a. titlec. graphb. mapd. illustration5. Why do writers include titles, subtitles, graphs, maps, images and tables intheir articles?a. to serve as a guide for the readers’ eyes in reading the textb. to help readers better understand the contentc. to provide an interpretation of the textd. to fill the spaces of the paper6. What type of textual aid is used when data are presented in rows andcolumns of words and numbers?a. title and illustrationc. tableb. subtitle and graphd. map7. Which is the main use of a table as a textual aid?a. show trends or patternsb. show relationships of datac. for interpreting numerical datad. for comparison of characteristics8. What type of textual aid is used if data is presented through dots, lines andcurves?a. illustrationc. tableb. graphd. map9. What do we want to show when we use graphs?a. get a better idea on trends and patternsb. show more detailed informationc. compare and contrast qualitiesd. record precise data10. Which is NOT an example of a graph?a. pieb. barc. lined. cycle11. Which textual aid is a visual representation of selected characteristics of aplace, usually drawn on a flat surface?a. compassc. globeb. directiond. map12. What type of map shows water and land formations in a specific area?a. political mapc. geographical mapb. physical mapd. demographical map2CO Q1 English10 Module 2

13. Which type of map shows the cities, towns, provinces and bodies of water?a. political mapc. geographical mapb. physical mapd. demographical map14. Which of thei.ii.iii.iv.following statements is true about maps as textual aids?Maps show specific directions to a destination.Maps can show landmarks that may be in a place.Maps can provide an image of the place being discussed.Maps can give a clearer picture of where the boundaries of eachtown, city, province and country lies.a. i and iic. i, ii and iiib. iii and ivd. i, ii, iii and iv15. Whicha.b.c.d.of the following is NOT a function of textual aids?They help catch the readers’ attention.They can provide clarity to the textual element.They are also useful tools in summarizing information.They are used to make the paper lighter by breaking the texts.What’s InYour previous module taught you to incorporate the information you take fromvarious sources like the news and informative talks in your everyday conversation.The information from these sources may be delivered orally or written.Both delivery methods leave clues so their audience can fully understand themessage and interpret it correctly. For information delivered orally, non-verbal cluessuch as the tone of the voice and the facial expression of the speaker can help theaudience decipher exactly what the message is. For written information such asnews, the clues are called textual aids.For you to be able to continue holding a meaningful conversation using theinformation you see in different sources, this learning material will help you enhanceyour information-seeking skills from written sources.3CO Q1 English10 Module 2

What’s NewActivity 2: A Puzzle is Worth a Word“A REBUS is a picture representation of a name, work, or phrase”(National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2017). Each rebuspuzzle below represents a word and your task is to guess what each word is.Write your answers on your answer sheet.1.2.NOON ENDSFRSTANDINGMISSIENDS5.6.DEALXQQQQMEWhat helped you answer these puzzles?Is it not because of the clues that the words themselves show? Thesepuzzles intrinsically contain textual aids, which are the focus of thismodule.What is ItTextual aids refer to non-textual elements that help readers understand thecontent of the text. They also refer to elements that stand-out from the main textsuch as titles and subtitles, bold, italicized and underlined texts. Non-textualelements include illustrations, maps, tables, graphs and charts.These aids have two main functions, namely: first, to direct the readers’attention to important ideas in the text and second, to provide more information asa supplement to what is already written.4CO Q1 English10 Module 2

Textual Aid1. Titles andSubtitlesDescription Provide initial idea onwhat the text is allabout Activatepriorknowledge on the topic “Represent the keyconcepts (title) andsupportingideas(subtitles) in the paper”(Elite Editing, 2015) Layeringorpositioning of these aidsconvey the ideas’ level Illustration Visual representationof a subject Facilitatesbetterretentionoftheinformation presentedMechanical weathering physically breaks uprock. One example is called frost action or frostshattering. Water gets into cracks and joints inbedrock. When the water freezes it expands andthe cracks are opened a little wider. Over timepieces of rock can split off a rock face and bigboulders are broken into smaller rocks andgravel.5CO Q1 English10 Module 2

physicalchemical-of-weathering-of-rocks/3. Tables4. Graphs Information (facts andfigures)thatareorganized and arrangedin columns and rows Used to show patternsand relationships thatstill appeals to thereaders’ verbal system,meaning tables aresupposed to be read likea text (Nussbaumer,2011) Column headings found on top of thecolumns;usedtoidentify the contents ofa specific column Row headings - usedto define or identify thecontents of a specificrow Used “when a simpletable cannot adequatelydemonstrate importantrelationships” of andwithin data (Mind ToolsContent Team, 2020) 4 types:A. bar graph - useseitherverticalorhorizontal bars to showthe data it representsbut emphasized thatthese bars do not toucheach other; height of thebar indicates the valueit represents: the longerthe bar, the higher thevalue it represents, theshorter the bar, thelower the value e-owners/.Bar 642141B. line graph – used toshow how numericaldata have changed overtime and it is best usedto show trends6CO Q1 English10 Module 2

C. pie graphs - show“how a whole is dividedinto different parts”(,2020)Line her-in-Manila-Philippines-Year-RoundD. pictograph - “similarto bar chart but usepictures to symbolize acountable unit of items”(Google Sites, n.d.).Pie ne-theyrebuying/#: :text reasons%20for%20online%20shoppingPictograph7CO Q1 English10 Module 2

5. Maps Visualrepresentationsofselected characteristicsof a place, usuallydrawn on a flat surface 2 typesA. physical map includeslabelsforfeaturessuchasmountain ranges andbodies of waterB. political map usually includes labelsfor features such ascities and major towns,units such as states orprovinces, and bodies ia/philippines/map.htmlPolitical ps-of-philippines/8CO Q1 English10 Module 2

What’s MoreActivity 3: Aids for UseDemonstrate your understanding of the text by answering the questions thatfollow. Use the textual aids presented in the article.HIDILYN DIAZ: A VICTOR’S CROWNDecember 6, 2016 by Department of Education Region IX – StoriesCharacter indeed is far more importantthan reputation. Unwavering commitment anddedication can move towards the path ofdestiny which is success. This is precisely thestory of a true champion whose standard ofexcellenceisherperseveranceandsteadfastness in what she does and whosechoice may not be easy, but despite of all thestumbling blocks along the way, she madeherself counted and stood out.Hidilyn Diaz who is fondly called “Heidy”by family and friends was not born with a silverspoon in her mouth. She is the fifth child of afamily of six by her parents Eduardo andEmelita Diaz on February 20, 1991. She wasraised in Mampang, Zamboanga City. And asa child, just like an ordinary one, used to carrycontainers of water from the village to their home. That was when she started herweightlifting dream when she was yet 11 years old under the tutelage of her cousinAllen Jayfrus Diaz who taught her the basics of weightlifting.She somehow managed to pursue a degree in college at Unibersidad deZamboanga taking up Computer Science. However, Diaz ultimately decided to stopattending university but later determined to continue with a degree related to sportsin Manila.2008 Summer OlympicsDiaz was selected as a wild card entry to the Summer Olympics by thePhilippine Weightlifting Association in early 2008. She is the first female weightlifterto compete for the Philippines in the Olympics, and the second weightlifter overall.She placed second to last in a field of 12 weightlifters, her performance was praisedand considered promising for her age. Philippine Sports Commission ChairmanWilliam Ramirez once commented that she competed there to gain valuableexperience and predicted that she would be a strong contender in futurecompetitions.9CO Q1 English10 Module 2

2012Diaz became the first Filipina weightlifter to compete in consecutive Olympics,by qualifying in the women’s weightlifting under 58 kg through the Continental andWorld Qualifying Tournaments. She was ranked ninth in her event heading to theOlympics. During the 2012 London Olympics, Diaz was chosen to be the flag bearerduring the Opening Ceremony.2015Trying to improve her chances of landing a podium finish at the 2016 RioOlympics, Diaz decided to drop weight from under 58 kg to under 53 kg. This provedto be effective as she recently snatched the Gold Medal in the 1st Southeast AsianWeightlifting Championship in Bangkok. She managed to lift a 98 kg snatch and a115 kg clean and jerk for a 213 kg total. Diaz also earned three bronze medals forthe clean, jerk and snatch events in the 53 kg division of the IWF World WeightliftingChampionship held in Houston, Texas on November 22, 2015 to claim a spot in the2016 Rio Olympics.2016In the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Diaz competed in thewomen’s 53kg weightlifting category with the intention of at least winning a bronzemedal. Diaz surpassed her own personal target and won the silver medal at the event.This was the first medal for the Philippines in the Summer Olympics after 20 years.This was also the first non-boxing medal for the nation since 1936. Aside from beingthe first Filipina weightlifter to compete in three consecutive Olympics, she alsobecame the first Filipino woman and first Mindanaoan to win an Olympic medal.On August 8, 2016, she returned to her hometown, Zamboanga City and waswelcomed as a Hero of the City. She also received numerous incentives fromPhilippine President Rodrigo Duterte, Philippine Sports Commission and her localcity.Military careerDiaz was recruited into the Philippine Air Force (PAF) through the military arm’sDirect Enlistment Program in 2013. She was initially assigned to the Air ForceSpecial Service Group. She was also given an Air Force Specialty Code skill inrecreation in weightlifting. In 2014, she was given a promotion from the rank ofAirwoman to Airwoman Second Class. Diaz was also a recipient of a Military MeritMedal for organizing PAF events and a Presidential Citation Unit Badge. When Diazwas training for her stint at the 2016 Summer Olympics, she was assigned to PAFPersonnel Management Center on a temporary basis. For her achievement at theOlympics, she was given a promotion by the PAF. The extent of the promotion wasinitially not disclosed but it was later reported that Diaz was promoted to the rankof Airwoman First Class.These are the glimpses of the journey of our hero and still counting. The best is yetto come! Mabuhay ka Hidilyn! (Profile Source: Wikipedia, Photo courtesy by:Philippine Primer)10CO Q1 English10 Module 2

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:1. In one or two word/s/phrase/s, how will you characterize Hidilyn Diaz?2. In one or two word/s/phrase/, how will you describe her career?3. In one or two sentences, summarize the article about Hidilyn Diaz.What I Have LearnedActivity #4: In 4, 3, 2, and 1 Below are examples and or templates of the textual aids previously learned. Aboveeach sample/template, give words that best summarize/encapsulate that textual aid.Challenge: the number of words you can write is limited to 4 words, 3 words, 2words and 1 word. Since there are already four textual aids learned, you canonly choose one textual aid to use the number of words indicated.For example, you will give four (4) words that summarize the textual aid Titles andSubtitles, one (1) word for Illustration, three (3) words for Graphs and two (2) wordsfor Table.A.SalesChart Title6420Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4Series 1Series 2Series 31st Qtr2nd Qtr3rd Qtr4th QtrB./Photo taken from us-groupC.11CO Q1 English10 Module 2

Senior High SchoolCurriculumCore Curriculum SubjectsApplied Track SubjectsSpecialized SubjectsTracksStrandsD.What I Can DoActivity #5: Textual Aids and Its Effect on MeHow much do all of these textual aids help you in understanding a text?Represent your ideas using any of the appropriate visual representations (graph ortable) that you learned from this learning material. Be guided by the rubrics below.5(Excellent)Table/GraphLabelsThe table/graphcorrectly depictsall the figuresaccurately anddone in a creativemanner. Itprovides a veryinformative visualrepresentation ofthe messagebeing portrayedand makes iteasier for thereader tounderstand thedata presented.The table/chart iscorrectly andproperly labeled.All labelsaccuratelydescribe orcapture orsummarize theidea of the4(VerySatisfactory)Thetable/graphshows thefigurescorrectly anddone neatly. Itprovides avisual supportso that readersget an ideawhat themessage is.Thetable/graph islabeled butthere are one ortwo spellingerrors but stillable to describeor capture orsummarize the123(Satisfactory)The table/graphcreated tried toshow an accuratedata but it maynot be done asneatly as neededto help readersunderstand themessage of thematerial. Thetable/chart doeslittle help inportraying themessage.Labels werewritten but thereare more preciseterms that maybe used to bettercapture theessence of themessage.2(NeedsImprovement)There was anattempt tocreate atable/graph.There was alsoan attempt tolabel thetable/graphmade but theterms usedmissed theessential ideasthat bestCO Q1 English10 Module 2

Accuracy ofFiguresinformationpresented.idea of theinformationpresented.All figures arecorrect in size,are easy to seeand are veryaccurate. It isobviously donecarefully toensure that datais interpretedcorrectly andaccurately. Thefigures areequally spacedand madecreatively.The bars arecreated neatlyand there wasan attempt tomake all barsaccurate butmissed to do sofor one (1) ortwo (2) bars.The bars arespaced andcolored.The bars arecreated and therewas an attempt tomake all the barsaccurate butmissed to do sofor more thanthree (3) bars.The bars aresketched ratherthan drawn.describe themessage orsend themessage of thematerialacross clearly.There was anattempt tomake all thebars of thegraphaccurate butwas not ableto do it ascorrectly andaccurately asneeded for thegraph tosupport thetextual datathat will helpreadersunderstandthe material.Rubrics adopted and adapted from ShowRubric&rubric id 1500439; paoih30491/RubricNameEssay.htmlAssessmentActivity 6: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write the chosen letter on aseparate sheet of paper.1. What do we call the tools that come in different forms and their mainobjective is to help readers have a clearer meaning of the text?a. guide questionsc. textual aidsb. reader’s interpretationsd. textual explanations2. Which of the following belongs to the tools that can help readers have aclearer meaning?a. animationsc. chartsb. boxesd. directions13CO Q1 English10 Module 2

3. If the sensory images help readers understand literary texts such as poemsand short stories, then which type of texts do textual aids help readersunderstand?i. journalistic textsii. nonfiction textsiii. scientific textsiv. fictional textsa. i, ii, iii, ivc. i and ii onlyb. i, ii, iiid. iii and iv only4. If the text has the following lines: “From Session Road, head south onUpper Session Road, slight right onto Kalaw Street ”, what kind of textualaid will be best fitted to match the text?a. graphc. titleb. illustrationd. map5. Which of the following statements is the best reason why writers includetitles, subtitles, graphs, maps, images and tables in their articles?a. to fill the spaces of the paperb. to provide an interpretation of the textc. to help readers better understand the contentd. to serve as a guide for the readers’ eyes in reading the text6. What type of textual aid is used when data are presented in rows andcolumns of words and numbers?a. tablec. illustration and titleb. mapd. graph and subtitle7. Which is the main use of a table as a textual aid?a. for comparison of characteristicsb. for interpreting numerical datac. show relationships of datad. show trends or patterns8. What type of textual aid is used if data is presented through dots, lines andcurves?a. tablec. illustrationb. mapd. graph9. What do we want to show when we use graphs?a. record precise datab. compare and contrast qualitiesc. show more detailed informationd. get a better idea on trends and patterns10. Which is not an example of a graph?a. barb. cycle14c. lined. pieCO Q1 English10 Module 2

11. Which textual aid is a visual representation of selected characteristics of aplace, usually drawn on a flat surface?a. compassc. mapb. globed. direction12. What type of map shows water and land formations in a specific area?a. demographical mapc. political mapb. geographical mapd. physical map13. Which type of map shows the cities, towns, provinces and bodies of water?a. political mapc. geographical mapb. physical mapd. demographical map14. Which is NOT the function of a map as a textual aid?a. Maps can give a clearer picture of where the boundaries of eachtown, city, province and country lies.b. Maps can provide an image of the place being discussed.c. Maps can show landmarks that may be in a place.d. Maps show specific directions to a destination.15. Which of the following is a function of textual aids?a. Textual aids provide clarity to the textual element of the material.b. Writers use them to distract the readers from the textual element.c. These are tools that activate prior knowledge on the topic of thearticle.d. Textual aids are used to make the paper lighter by breaking thetexts.Additional ActivityActivity 7: Combo ModsYour previous module developed your skill in choosing information andusing this information during every day conversation. This module, on the otherhand, helped you in fully understanding the written information. This activity willculminate what you have learned from both modules.Demonstrate your understanding of the article below by creating a very shortscript of your conversation about the reading material.15CO Q1 English10 Module 2

The different types of COVID-19 vaccines12 January 2021 – World Health Organization 2021As of December 2020, there are over 200 vaccine candidates for COVID-19 beingdeveloped. Of these, at least 52 candidate vaccines are in human trials. There are severalothers currently in phase I/II, which will enter phase III in the coming months (for moreinformation on the clinical trial phases, see part three of our Vaccine Explained series).Why are there so many vaccines in development?Typically, many vaccine candidates will be evaluated before any are found to beboth safe and effective. For example, of all the vaccines that are studied in the lab andlaboratory animals, roughly 7 out of every 100 will be considered good enough to moveinto clinical trials in humans. Of the vaccines that do make it to clinical trials, just one infive is successful. Having lots of different vaccines in development increases the chancesthat there will be one or more successful vaccines that will be shown to be safe andefficacious for the intended prioritized populations.The different types of vaccinesThere are three main approaches to designing a vaccine. Their differences lie inwhether they use a whole virus or bacterium; just the parts of the germ that triggersthe immune system; or just the genetic material that provides the instructions formaking specific proteins and not the whole virus.The whole-microbe approachInactivated vaccineThe first way to make a vaccine is to take the disease-carrying virus or bacterium,or one very similar to it, and inactivate or kill it using chemicals, heat or radiation. Thisapproach uses technology that’s been proven to work in people – this is the way the fluand polio vaccines are made – and vaccines can be manufactured on a reasonablescale.However, it requires special laboratory facilities to grow the virus or bacteriumsafely, can have a relatively long production time, and will likely require two or threedoses to be administered.16CO Q1 English10 Module 2

Live-attenuated vaccineA live-attenuated vaccine uses a living but weakened version of the virus or onethat’s very similar. The measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the chickenpoxand shingles vaccine are examples of this type of vaccine. This approach uses similartechnology to the inactivated vaccine and can be manufactured at scale. However,vaccines like this may not be suitable for people with compromised immune systems.Viral vector vaccineThis type of vaccine uses a safe virus to deliver specific sub-parts – called proteins– of the germ of interest so that it can trigger an immune response without causingdisease. To do this, the instructions for making particular parts of the pathogen ofinterest are inserted into a safe virus. The safe virus then serves as a platform or vectorto deliver the protein into the body. The protein triggers the immune response. TheEbola vaccine is a viral vector vaccine and this type can be developed rapidly.The subunit approachA subunit vaccine is one that only uses the very specific parts (the subunits) of avirus or bacterium that the immune system needs to recognize. It doesn't contain thewhole microbe or use a safe virus as a vector. The subunits may be proteins or sugars.Most of the vaccines on the childhood schedule are subunit vaccines, protecting peoplefrom diseases such as whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria and meningococcalmeningitis.The genetic approach (nucleic acid vaccine)Unlike vaccine approaches that use either a weakened or dead whole microbe orparts of one, a nucleic acid vaccine just uses a section of genetic material that providesthe instructions for specific proteins, not the whole microbe. DNA and RNA are theinstructions our cells use to make proteins. In our cells, DNA is first turned intomessenger RNA, which is then used as the blueprint to make specific proteins.17CO Q1 English10 Module 2

A nucleic acid vaccine delivers a specific set of instructions to our cells, either asDNA or mRNA, for them to make the specific protein that we want our immune system torecognize and respond to.The nucleic acid approach is a new way of developing vaccines. Before the COVID-19pandemic, none had yet been through the full approvals process for use in humans, thoughsome DNA vaccines, including for particular cancers, were undergoing human trials.Because of the pandemic, research in this area has progressed very fast and some mRNAvaccines for COVID-19 are getting emergency use authorization, which means they can nowbe given to people beyond using them only in clinical trials.18CO Q1 English10 Module 2

19CO Q1 English10 Module 2What IKnow1. A2. C3. C4. B5. C6. C7. D8. B9. A10. D11. D12. B13. A14. D15. DCAADDBCDADAWhat’s New1. Lazy afternoon2. 6 Feet underground3. Misunderstanding betweenfriends4. Just between you and me5. Big deal6. Excuse meAnswer Key

ReferencesABS CBN News. 2010. "Filipino internet users most engaged in social media:survey." ABS CBN News, April 9: sk Media Group. (2019). What is a Text Aid? Retrieved from t-aid-a47d40fefa2ee50Department of Education Region IX. 2016. Hidilyn Diaz: A Victor's Crown.December 6. Accessed July iaz-a-victors-crown/.Elite Editing. (2015, December). Elite Editing. Retrieved from headings-and-why-are-theyimportant/European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2021. Coronaviruses. March16. Accessed 2020. nce/coronaviruses.FreeWorldMaps.Net. 2021. Philippine Physical /map.html.Google Sites. (n

objective is to help readers have a clearer meaning of the given text? a. textual aids c. textual explanations b. guide questions d. reader’s interpretations 2. Which of the following does NOT belong to the tools that can help reader