List of trigonometric identities1List of trigonometric identitiesIn mathematics, trigonometric identitiesare equalities that involve trigonometricfunctions and are true for every single valueof the occurring variables. Geometrically,these are identities involving certainfunctions of one or more angles. They aredistinct from triangle identities, which areidentities involving both angles and sidelengths of a triangle. Only the former arecovered in this article.These identities are useful wheneverexpressionsinvolvingtrigonometricfunctions need to be simplified. Animportant application is the integration ofnon-trigonometric functions: a commontechnique involves first using thesubstitution rule with a trigonometricfunction, and then simplifying the resultingintegral with a trigonometric identity.Cosines and sines around the unit circleNotationAnglesThis article uses Greek letters such as alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and theta (θ) to represent angles. Severaldifferent units of angle measure are widely used, including degrees, radians, and grads:1 full circle 360 degrees 2radians 400 grads.The following table shows the conversions for some common angles:Degrees30 60 120 150 210 240 300 330 RadiansGradsDegrees33⅓ grad 66⅔ grad 133⅓ grad 166⅔ grad 233⅓ grad 266⅔ grad 333⅓ grad 366⅔ grad45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 50 grad100 grad150 grad200 grad250 grad300 grad350 grad400 gradRadiansGradsUnless otherwise specified, all angles in this article are assumed to be in radians, though angles ending in a degreesymbol ( ) are in degrees.

List of trigonometric identities2Trigonometric functionsThe primary trigonometric functions are the sine and cosine of an angle. These are sometimes abbreviated sin(θ) andcos(θ), respectively, where θ is the angle, but the parentheses around the angle are often omitted, e.g., sin θ andcos θ.The tangent (tan) of an angle is the ratio of the sine to the cosine:Finally, the reciprocal functions secant (sec), cosecant (csc), and cotangent (cot) are the reciprocals of the cosine,sine, and tangent:These definitions are sometimes referred to as ratio identities.Inverse functionsThe inverse trigonometric functions are partial inverse functions for the trigonometric functions. For example, theinverse function for the sine, known as the inverse sine (sin 1) or arcsine (arcsin or asin), satisfiesandThis article uses the notation below for inverse trigonometric functions:FunctionInversesincostanseccsccotarcsin arccos arctan arcsec arccsc arccotPythagorean identityThe basic relationship between the sine and the cosine is the Pythagorean trigonometric identity:where cos2 θ means (cos(θ))2 and sin2 θ means (sin(θ))2.This can be viewed as a version of the Pythagorean theorem, and follows from the equation x2 y2 1 for the unitcircle. This equation can be solved for either the sine or the cosine:

List of trigonometric identities3Related identitiesDividing the Pythagorean identity through by either cos2 θ or sin2 θ yields two other identities:Using these identities together with the ratio identities, it is possible to express any trigonometric function in terms ofany other (up to a plus or minus sign):Each trigonometric function in terms of the other five.[1]in terms ofHistoric shorthandsThe versine, coversine, haversine, andexsecant were used in navigation. Forexample the haversine formula was used tocalculate the distance between two points ona sphere. They are rarely used today.All of the trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically interms of a unit circle centered at O. Many of these terms are no longer in commonuse.

List of trigonometric identities4Name(s)Abbreviation(s)[2]Valueversed sine, versineversed cosine, vercosinecoversed sine, coversinecoversed cosine, covercosinehalf versed sine, haversinehalf versed cosine, havercosinehalf coversed sine, hacoversinecohaversinehalf coversed cosine,hacovercosinecohavercosineexterior secant, exsecantexterior cosecant, excosecantchordSymmetry, shifts, and periodicityBy examining the unit circle, the following properties of the trigonometric functions can be established.SymmetryWhen the trigonometric functions are reflected from certain angles, the result is often one of the other trigonometricfunctions. This leads to the following identities:Reflected in[3]Reflected inReflected in[4](co-function identities)

List of trigonometric identities5Shifts and periodicityBy shifting the function round by certain angles, it is often possible to find different trigonometric functions thatexpress the result more simply. Some examples of this are shown by shifting functions round by π/2, π and 2πradians. Because the periods of these functions are either π or 2π, there are cases where the new function is exactlythe same as the old function without the shift.Shift by π/2Shift by πShift by 2π[5][6]Period for tan and cotPeriod for sin, cos, csc and secAngle sum and difference identitiesThese are also known as the addition and subtraction theorems or formulæ. They were originally established by the10th century Persian mathematician Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī. One method of proving these identities is to apply Euler'sformula. The use of the symbolsandis described in the article plus-minus 1]ArccosineArctangent[12][13]Matrix formThe sum and difference formulae for sine and cosine can be written in matrix form as:This shows that these matrices form a representation of the rotation group in the plane (technically, the specialorthogonal group SO(2)), since the composition law is fulfilled: subsequent multiplications of a vector with thesetwo matrices yields the same result as the rotation by the sum of the angles.

List of trigonometric identitiesSines and cosines of sums of infinitely many termsIn these two identities an asymmetry appears that is not seen in the case of sums of finitely many terms: in eachproduct, there are only finitely many sine factors and cofinitely many cosine factors.If only finitely many of the terms θi are nonzero, then only finitely many of the terms on the right side will benonzero because sine factors will vanish, and in each term, all but finitely many of the cosine factors will be unity.Tangents of sumsLet ek (for k 0, 1, 2, 3, .) be the kth-degree elementary symmetric polynomial in the variablesfor i 0, 1, 2, 3, ., i.e.,ThenThe number of terms on the right side depends on the number of terms on the right side.For example:and so on. The case of only finitely many terms can be proved by mathematical induction.[14]6

List of trigonometric identities7Secants and cosecants of sumswhere ek is the kth-degree elementary symmetric polynomial in the n variables xi tan θi, i 1, ., n, and the numberof terms in the denominator and the number of factors in the product in the numerator depend on the number ofterms in the sum on the left. The case of only finitely many terms can be proved by mathematical induction on thenumber of such terms. The convergence of the series in the denominators can be shown by writing the secant identityin the formand then observing that the left side converges if the right side converges, and similarly for the cosecant identity.For example,Multiple-angle formulaeTn is the nth Chebyshev polynomial[15]Sn is the nth spread polynomialde Moivre's formula,is the imaginary unit[16]Double-, triple-, and half-angle formulaeThese can be shown by using either the sum and difference identities or the multiple-angle formulae.[17][18]Double-angle formulae[15][19]Triple-angle formulae[20][21]Half-angle formulae

List of trigonometric identities8The fact that the triple-angle formula for sine and cosine only involves powers of a single function allows one torelate the geometric problem of a compass and straightedge construction of angle trisection to the algebraic problemof solving a cubic equation, which allows one to prove that this is in general impossible using the given tools, byfield theory.A formula for computing the trigonometric identities for the third-angle exists, but it requires finding the zeroes ofthe cubic equation, where x is the value of the sine function at some angle and d is the knownvalue of the sine function at the triple angle. However, the discriminant of this equation is negative, so this equationhas three real roots (of which only one is the solution within the correct third-circle) but none of these solutions isreducible to a real algebraic expression, as they use intermediate complex numbers under the cube roots, (which maybe expressed in terms of real-only functions only if using hyperbolic functions).Sine, cosine, and tangent of multiple anglesFor specific multiples, these follow from the angle addition formulas, while the general formula was given by 16thcentury French mathematician Vieta.In each of these two equations, the first parenthesized term is a binomial coefficient, and the final trigonometricfunction equals one or minus one or zero so that half the entries in each of the sums are removed. tan nθ can bewritten in terms of tan θ using the recurrence relation:cot nθ can be written in terms of cot θ using the recurrence relation:

List of trigonometric identities9Chebyshev methodThe Chebyshev method is a recursive algorithm for finding the nth multiple angle formula knowing the (n 1)th and(n 2)th formulae.[22]The cosine for nx can be computed from the cosine of (n 1)x and (n 2)x as follows:Similarly sin(nx) can be computed from the sines of (n 1)x and (n 2)xFor the tangent, we have:where H/K tan(n 1)x.Tangent of an averageSetting either α or β to 0 gives the usual tangent half-angle formulæ.Viète's infinite productPower-reduction formulaObtained by solving the second and third versions of the cosine double-angle formula.SineCosineOtherand in general terms of powers of sin θ or cos θ the following is true, and can be deduced using De Moivre'sformula, Euler's formula and binomial theorem.

List of trigonometric identities10CosineSineProduct-to-sum and sum-to-product identitiesThe product-to-sum identities or prosthaphaeresis formulas can be proven by expanding their right-hand sides usingthe angle addition theorems. See beat (acoustics) and phase detector for applications of the sum-to-product formulæ.[23]Product-to-sum[24]Sum-to-productOther related identitiesIf x, y, and z are the three angles of any triangle, or in other words(If any of x, y, z is a right angle, one should take both sides to be . This is neither nor ; for present purposesit makes sense to add just one point at infinity to the real line, that is approached by tan(θ) as tan(θ) either increasesthrough positive values or decreases through negative values. This is a one-point compactification of the real line.)

List of trigonometric identitiesHermite's cotangent identityCharles Hermite demonstrated the following identity.[25] Suppose a1, ., an are complex numbers, no two of whichdiffer by an integer multiple of π. Let(in particular, A1,1, being an empty product, is 1). ThenThe simplest non-trivial example is the case n 2:Ptolemy's theorem(The first three equalities are trivial; the fourth is the substance of this identity.) Essentially this is Ptolemy's theoremadapted to the language of modern trigonometry.Linear combinationsFor some purposes it is important to know that any linear combination of sine waves of the same period or frequencybut different phase shifts is also a sine wave with the same period or frequency, but a different phase shift. In thecase of a non-zero linear combination of a sine and cosine wave[26] (which is just a sine wave with a phase shift ofπ/2), we havewhereor equivalentlyor evenor using the atan2 functionMore generally, for an arbitrary phase shift, we havewhere11

List of trigonometric identitiesandFor the most general case, see Phasor addition.Lagrange's trigonometric identitiesThese identities, named after Joseph Louis Lagrange, are:[27][28]A related function is the following function of x, called the Dirichlet kernel.Other sums of trigonometric functionsSum of sines and cosines with arguments in arithmetic progression[29]:For any a and b:where atan2(y, x) is the generalization of arctan(y/x) that covers the entire circular range.The above identity is sometimes convenient to know when thinking about the Gudermannian function, which relatesthe circular and hyperbolic trigonometric functions without resorting to complex numbers.If x, y, and z are the three angles of any triangle, i.e. if x y z π, then12

List of trigonometric identities13Certain linear fractional transformationsIf ƒ(x) is given by the linear fractional transformationand similarlythenMore tersely stated, if for all α we let ƒα be what we called ƒ above, thenIf x is the slope of a line, then ƒ(x) is the slope of its rotation through an angle of α.Inverse trigonometric functionsCompositions of trig and inverse trig functionsRelation to the complex exponential function[30](Euler's identity),[31][32]and hence the corollary:where.(Euler's formula),

List of trigonometric identitiesInfinite product formulaeFor applications to special functions, the following infinite product formulae for trigonometric functions areuseful:[33][34]Identities without variablesThe curious identityis a special case of an identity that contains one variable:Similarly:The same cosine identity in radians isSimilarly:The following is perhaps not as readily generalized to an identity containing variables (but see explanation below):Degree measure ceases to be more felicitous than radian measure when we consider this identity with 21 in thedenominators:The factors 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10 may start to make the pattern clear: they are those integers less than 21/2 that arerelatively prime to (or have no prime factors in common with) 21. The last several examples are corollaries of a basicfact about the irreducible cyclotomic polynomials: the cosines are the real parts of the zeroes of those polynomials;the sum of the zeroes is the Möbius function evaluated at (in the very last case above) 21; only half of the zeroes arepresent above. The two identities preceding this last one arise in the same fashion with 21 replaced by 10 and 15,respectively.Many of those curious identities stem from more general facts like the following[35]:14

List of trigonometric identities15andCombining these gives usIf n is an odd number (n 2m 1) we can make use of the symmetries to getComputing πAn efficient way to compute π is based on the following identity without variables, due to Machin:or, alternatively, by using an identity of Leonhard Euler:A useful mnemonic for certain values of sines and cosinesFor certain simple angles, the sines and cosines take the formremember.MiscellanyWith the golden ratio φ:Also see exact trigonometric constants.for 0 n 4, which makes them easy to

List of trigonometric identitiesAn identity of EuclidEuclid showed in Book XIII, Proposition 10 of his Elements that the area of the square on the side of a regularpentagon inscribed in a circle is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the sides of the regular hexagon andthe regular decagon inscribed in the same circle. In the language of modern trigonometry, this says:Ptolemy used this proposition to compute some angles in his table of chords.CalculusIn calculus the relations stated below require angles to be measured in radians; the relations would become morecomplicated if angles were measured in another unit such as degrees. If the trigonometric functions are defined interms of geometry, their derivatives can be found by verifying two limits. The first is:verified using the unit circle and squeeze theorem. The second limit is:verified using the identity tan(x/2) (1 cos x)/sin x. Having established these two limits, one can use the limitdefinition of the derivative and the addition theorems to show that (sin x)′ cos x and (cos x)′ sin x. If the sineand cosine functions are defined by their Taylor series, then the derivatives can be found by differentiating the powerseries term-by-term.The rest of the trigonometric functions can be differentiated using the above identities and the rules ofdifferentiation:[36][37][38]The integral identities can be found in "list of integrals of trigonometric functions". Some generic forms are listedbelow.16

List of trigonometric identities17ImplicationsThe fact that the differentiation of trigonometric functions (sine and cosine) results in linear combinations of thesame two functions is of fundamental importance to many fields of mathematics, including differential equations andFourier transforms.Exponential definitionsFunction[39]Inverse functionMiscellaneousDirichlet kernelThe Dirichlet kernel Dn(x) is the function occurring on both sides of the next identity:The convolution of any integrable function of period 2π with the Dirichlet kernel coincides with the function'snth-degree Fourier approximation. The same holds for any measure or generalized function.

List of trigonometric identitiesWeierstrass substitutionIf we setthen[40]where eix cos(x) i sin(x), sometimes abbreviated to cis(x).When this substitution of t for tan(x/2) is used in calculus, it follows that sin(x) is replaced by 2t/(1 t2), cos(x) isreplaced by (1 t2)/(1 t2) and the differential dx is replaced by (2 dt)/(1 t2). Thereby one converts rationalfunctions of sin(x) and cos(x) to rational functions of t in order to find their antiderivatives.Notes[1][2][3][4]Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 73, 4.3.45Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 78, 4.3.147Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.13–15The Elementary Identities (http:/ / jwbales. home. mindspring. com/ precal/ part5/ part5. 1. html)[5][6][7][8]Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.9Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.7–8Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.16Weisstein, Eric W., " Trigonometric Addition Formulas (http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ TrigonometricAdditionFormulas. html)" fromMathWorld.[9] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.17[10] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.18[11] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 80, 4.4.42[12] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 80, 4.4.43[13] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 80, 4.4.36[14] Bronstein, Manuel (1989). "Simplification of real elementary functions". In G. H. Gonnet (ed.). Proceedings of the ACM-SIGSAM 1989International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation. ISSAC'89 (Portland US-OR, 1989-07). New York: ACM. pp. 207–211.doi:10.1145/74540.74566. ISBN 0-89791-325-6.[15] Weisstein, Eric W., " Multiple-Angle Formulas (http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ Multiple-AngleFormulas. html)" from MathWorld.[16] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 74, 4.3.48[17] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.24–26[18] Weisstein, Eric W., " Double-Angle Formulas (http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ Double-AngleFormulas. html)" from MathWorld.[19] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.27–28[20] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.20–22[21] Weisstein, Eric W., " Half-Angle Formulas (http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ Half-AngleFormulas. html)" from MathWorld.[22] Ken Ward's Mathematics Pages, http:/ / www. trans4mind. com/ personal development/ mathematics/ trigonometry/multipleAnglesRecursiveFormula. htm[23] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.31–33[24] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.34–39[25] Warren P. Johnson, "Trigonometric Identities à la Hermite", American Mathematical Monthly, volume 117, number 4, April 2010, pages311–327[26] Proof at http:/ / pages. pacificcoast. net/ cazelais/ 252/ lc-trig. pdf[27] Eddie Ortiz Muñiz (February 1953). "A Method for Deriving Various Formulas in Electrostatics and Electromagnetism Using Lagrange'sTrigonometric Identities". American Journal of Physics 21 (2): 140. doi:10.1119/1.1933371.[28] Alan Jeffrey and Hui-hui Dai (2008). "Section". Handbook of Mathematical Formulas and Integrals (4th ed.). Academic Press.ISBN 978-0-12-374288-9.[29] Michael P. Knapp, Sines and Cosines of Angles in Arithmetic Progression (http:/ / evergreen. loyola. edu/ mpknapp/ www/ papers/knapp-sv. pdf)[30] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 74, 4.3.47[31] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 71, 4.3.2[32] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 71, 4.3.1[33] Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 75, 4.3.89–9018

List of trigonometric identities[34][35][36][37][38][39][40]Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 85, 4.5.68–69Weisstein, Eric W., " Sine (http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ Sine. html)" from MathWorldAbramowitz and Stegun, p. 77, 4.3.105–110Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 82, 4.4.52–57Finney, Ross (2003). Calculus : Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic. Glenview, Illinois: Prentice Hall. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-13-063131-0.Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 80, 4.4.26–31Abramowitz and Stegun, p. 72, 4.3.23References Abramowitz, Milton; Stegun, Irene A., eds. (1972). Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas,Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-61272-0External links Values of Sin and Cos, expressed in surds, for integer multiples of 3 and of 5⅝ ( sin cos.html), and for the same angles Csc and Sec ( csc sec.html) and Tan ( tan.html).19

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List of trigonometric identities 2 Trigonometric functions The primary trigonometric functions are the sine and cosine of an angle. These are sometimes abbreviated sin(θ) andcos(θ), respectively, where θ is the angle, but the parentheses around the angle are often omitted, e.g., sin θ andcos θ. The tangent