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AN4818Application noteBringing up the BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 devicesIntroductionThe BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices are high performance, ultra-low power wireless systems-on-chip, which supportBluetooth low energy specifications.In order to achieve the maximum performance, some procedures must be carried out before finalizing the application.This document summarizes the following fundamental steps: Application PCB test pointsPower supply and current consumption tests Device configuration XTAL and LSOSC centering tests Output power test Packet exchange test Sensitivity test Power consumption in advertising modeNote:The document content is valid both for the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices. Any reference to theBlueNRG-1 device and platform is also valid for the BlueNRG-2 device and platform. Any specific difference ishighlighted whenever it is needed.AN4818 - Rev 8 - February 2019For further information contact your local STMicroelectronics sales office.www.st.com

AN4818Application PCB test points1Application PCB test pointsST recommends a set of test points to measure the performance of the device on the customer's PCB. Accordingto PCB constraints, it may not always be possible to add all test points, therefore some tests cannot beperformed.Table 1. Test pointsTest pointFunctionDetails of the test pointCurrentconsumptionShould be added to the PCB to measure the BlueNRG-1current consumptionVoltage supplyShould be added to measure the BlueNRG-1 supply voltagesRFIf the PCB uses an embedded antenna, like a PCB or a chipBetween the matching network (orantenna, it is recommended to add a UFL connector to allowbalun) and the embedded antenna (seemeasurement of the RF performance with a spectrum analyzer Figure 1. UFL connector).ANATEST0,ANATEST1Pins used for the XTAL startup measureIn series with the VBAT1,2,3 pinsTo pins:VDD1V2, SMPSFILT1, SMPSFILT2Pins: ANATEST0, ANATEST1Figure 1. UFL connectorAN4818 - Rev 8page 2/32

AN4818DTM test applications1.1DTM test applicationsDTM (direct test mode) test application is used as reference software to configure the platform under test. DTMbinary file can be built using the DTM test application available on BlueNRG-1 2 DK software package (STSWBLUENRG1-DK) on BLE Examples/DTM folder, and it can be directly loaded using the BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2Flasher utility (STSW-BNRGFLASHER). Based on the test requirements, the user can select: BlueNRG-1 or BlueNRG-2 DTM project UART configuration based on the HS crystal used on the device platform and on the selected BLE stackmodular configuration option SPI configuration based on the selected BLE stack modular configuration optionThe BlueNRG-1, STEVAL-IDB007V1/STEVAL-IDB007V2 (16 MHz HS crystal), DTM UART mode pre-built binaryimages are available on BlueNRG-1 2 DK software package on folders: Firmware/BLE Examples/DTM/BlueNRG1 and DTM basic/BlueNRG1. DTM SPI mode pre-built binary images are also available on the samefolders.The BlueNRG-2, STEVAL-IDB008V1/STEVAL-IDB008V2 (32 MHz HS crystal), DTM UART mode pre-built binaryimages are available on BlueNRG-1 2 DK software package on folders: \Firmware\BLE Examples\DTM\BlueNRG-2 and DTM basic/BlueNRG-2. DTM SPI mode pre-built binary images are also available on the samefolders.AN4818 - Rev 8page 3/32

AN4818Power supply test2Power supply test2.1Test case specification identifierSUPPLY TESTNo specific firmware is needed for this test.2.2Test prerequisiteIn order to perform this test, you need to add some test points to the platform. Refer to Section 1 Application PCBtest points for test pin description.2.3Test descriptionThe aim of this test is to ensure that the BlueNRG-1 is correctly powered.2.4Test setup2.4.1HardwareA multimeter is required for this test.2.4.2SoftwareDTM binary file loaded into BlueNRG-1 or BlueNRG-2 device. Please refer to Section 1.1 DTM test applications.2.5Test procedurePower up the BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 platforms.Measure the voltage in: VBAT1, 2, 3, VDD1V2, SMPSFILT1, SMPSFILT2.2.6Expected resultsThe measured pin voltage and current should be aligned with the following values if the DC-DC converter ONconfiguration has been chosen.Table 2. Supply test resultsPinExpected valueVBAT1,2,31.7 – 3.6 VVDD1V21.2 VSMPSFILT1Square wave around 1.4 VSMPSFILT21.4 VIf the DC-DC converter OFF configuration has been chosen the SMPSFILT1 pin is left floating and theSMPSFILT2 pin is connected directly to VBAT.2.7NoteIf some of the measured values are not aligned with the expected values, it is recommended to double-check theintegrity of the board connection.2.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 4/32

AN4818Device configuration3Device configurationThere are some parameters of the BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 devices that must be defined and used duringsoftware initialization, before the application board is finalized (see Section 13 References #4).These parameters are: Low speed oscillator source (32 kHz or the internal ring oscillator)Power management options (SMPS inductor or SMPS off configuration) Change HS start-up time parameter from 512 µs to 1953 µs Sleep clock accuracy LS crystal period and frequencyThe device configuration parameters can also be set using the BlueNRG GUI PC application available on theBlueNRG GUI SW package (STSW-BNRGUI).Figure 2. BlueNRG GUI IFR tool used for the device configurationAN4818 - Rev 8page 5/32

AN4818HS Startup Time4HS Startup TimeThe HS speed clock (16 or 32 MHz) requires the tuning of a specific parameter HS Startup Time.4.1Test case specification identifierHS XTAL startup TEST.4.2Test prerequisiteThe user platform should have the test points for ANATEST0 and ANATEST1 pins (see Table 1. Test points).4.3Test descriptionThe HS Startup Time parameter is important because it permits minimization of the current consumption, due toa measurement of the start-up time of the adopted crystal (XTAL startup). A too short value prevents theBlueNRG-1 from correctly sending/receiving packets.4.4Test setup4.4.1HardwareAn oscilloscope is required for this test.4.4.2SoftwareThe ST BlueNRG GUI and DTM SPI binary file loaded in the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices. Refer toSection 1.1 DTM test applications.Note:This test requires the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices to go to sleep.4.5Test procedureTick the checkbox present in the BlueNRG IFR tool in the BlueNRG GUI to enable the start-up time test signals.Set the HS start-up time parameter to the maximum value and program this value on the device by selecting the"WRITE" button.Put two scope probes on test points ANATEST0 and ANATEST1.Set the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 in advertising mode, using these commands with the BlueNRG GUI:ACI GATT INITACI GAP INIT(Role Peripheral)ACI GAP SET DISCOVERABLE(Advertising Type 0x00,Advertising Interval Min 0x0020,Advertising Interval Max 0x0020,Own Address Type 0x01,Advertising Filter Policy 0x03)The time between the rising edge on ANATEST0 and rising edge on ANATEST1 is the time the crystal oscillatortakes to start (see Figure 3. XTAL start-up measurement).Since this time can variate a lot in some conditions, especially when the crystal is kept off for around 20 ms,several measurements must be taken using an advertising interval of 20 ms (a good number of measurements is180000, which corresponds to 1 hour of test). The maximum measured value only must be considered.AN4818 - Rev 8page 6/32

AN4818Expected resultsFigure 3. XTAL start-up measurementNote:This test can be also performed by loading the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices with an application going tosleep mode and configuring the device in advertising mode with the highlighted advertising parameters (0x20)with the ATB0 ANA ENG REG, ATB1 ANA ENG REG registers set , respectively, to values 0x04 , 0x34 onfile system bluenrg1.c, define COLD START CONFIGURATION. Then, the user must put two scope probes ontest points ANATEST0 and ANATEST1 and take the time measurements as just described.4.6Expected resultsThe maximum measured value must be compensated in order to consider the variations of the power supply,temperature and the crystal tolerance, by multiplying the value by some specific coefficients: 20% : to take in account the effect of power supply variations from 1.7 to 3.6 V 10% : to take in account the effect of temperature variations within the related operating range 30%: to take in account the effect of crystal motional inductance tolerance. It is strongly recommended touse a crystal with a motional inductance tolerance less than 20%As a consequence, the compensated value is calculated using this formula:XTAL startup XTAL startup measured*1.2*1.1*1.3 1.716*XTAL startup measuredThe XTAL startup measured is the maximum measured value as described in the previous sectionSection 4.5 Test procedure.The first coefficient (1.2) can be omitted if the test is performed at the minimum operative voltage.Finally, to find the HS STARTUP TIME value, that must be set in the device configuration parameters, use thisformula:HS STARTUP TIME 110 µs XTAL startup4.7NoteExamples:XTAL startup measured 300 µs HS STARTUP TIME 625 µs XTAL startup measured 700 µs HS STARTUP TIME 1311 µs4.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 7/32

AN4818XTAL centering test5XTAL centering testThe BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 integrate a low-speed frequency oscillator (LSOSC) and a high-speed (16 MHzor 32 MHz) frequency oscillator (HSOSC).The low frequency clock is used in low power mode and can be supplied either by a 32.7 kHz oscillator that usesan external crystal or by a ring oscillator with maximum 500 ppm frequency tolerance, which does not requireany external components.The primary high frequency clock is a 16 MHz or 32 MHz crystal oscillator.The frequency tolerance of the high-speed crystal oscillator must be below 50 ppm.The BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices, as with all RF systems, are highly dependent on accurate clocks for thecorrect operation. A deviation in clock frequency directly deviates the radio frequency, and this can degrade RFperformance, violate legal requirements or in the worst case lead to a non-functioning system.For these reasons the crystal frequency must be centered, and the easiest way to find the optimum load capacitorvalues for a given circuit and layout is through experimentation.5.1Test case specification identifierXTAL center TEST.5.2Test prerequisiteFor this test, the UFL connector (see Table 1. Test points) is not mandatory.5.3Test descriptionFor the reasons previously explained, the crystal frequency must be centered, and the optimum load capacitorvalues can be found through experimentation. The radio can be set by fixing a constant carrier at a givenfrequency.By measuring the output frequency with a spectrum analyzer, the offset can be easily found.5.4Test setup5.4.1HardwareA spectrum analyzer is required for this test.5.4.2SoftwareThe ST BlueNRG GUI and DTM binary file loaded in the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices. Refer toSection 1.1 DTM test applications.5.5Test procedureThe following procedure is valid for the high-speed oscillator (16 MHz or 32 MHz):Connect the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 board to the spectrum analyzer through an RF cable if it is equippedwith UFL connector, otherwise plug a 2.4 GHz antenna into the input port of the instrument.Power up the selected platform.Set the spectrum analyzer to: res BW 1 kHz, SPAN 500 kHz (see Figure 4. Frequency tone at Ch0 for theXTAL center test).Generate a carrier wave tone at Ch0 (freq. 2.401750 GHz) using the BlueNRG GUI, RF test window, start tonebutton and selecting TX frequency as 2402 MHz, channel 0 (a tone can be emitted at f 2402 k*2 - 0.250 MHz,with k 0 to 39).The difference between the desired tone and the measured tone is the frequency offset.AN4818 - Rev 8page 8/32

AN4818Expected resultsFigure 4. Frequency tone at Ch0 for the XTAL center testThe same results can be achieved by directly using the ACI command: ACI HAL TONE START() with offset setto 0x02 (-250 kHz offset).Note:Starting from the BlueNRG-1 2 DK software package v3.0.0 (STSW-BLUENRG1-DK),ACI HAL TONE START() API has been updated with a further parameter offset, which specifies if the tonemust be emitted with an offset from the channel center frequency. New API is as follows:ACI HAL TONE START(RF Channel, Offset). The allowed offset parameter values are: 0x00: 0 kHz offset 0x01: 250 kHz offset 0x02: -250 kHz offsetPlease notice that on the previous BlueNRG-1 2 DK software package, the offset parameter is not available andthe API emits the tone at channel center frequency with the offset fixed at: -250 kHz.5.6Expected resultsThe offset limit is (as reported in point 1 Section 13 References): Offset 50 kHzIf DUT frequency 2.4018 GHz increases XTAL capsIf DUT frequency 2.4017 GHz decreases XTAL caps5.7NoteN/A.5.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 9/32

AN4818LSOSC centering test6LSOSC centering testThe LSOSC is used to have a reference time clock. The advantage of using the external 32.768 kHz clock is thatit consumes less power than internal RO and it is more accurate (50 ppm). This test allows its oscillator frequencyto be centered, changing the crystal capacitance.6.1Test case specification identifierLSOSC center TEST.6.2Test prerequisiteFor this test, a test point in the pin 14 (ANATEST1) is required.6.3Test descriptionThere is a way, using the IFR tool of the BlueNRG GUI, to put the LSOSC signal in the pin 14.By measuring its frequency with an oscilloscope, the frequency offset can easily be measured.6.4Test setup6.4.1HardwareAn oscilloscope is required for this test.6.4.2SoftwareThe ST BlueNRG GUI and DTM binary file loaded in the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices. Refer toSection 1.1 DTM test applications.6.5Test procedureConnect an oscilloscope probe in the pin 14 (ANATEST1) test point. Power up the BlueNRG-1 platform.Set the scope to capture a consistent number of 32 kHz waveform periods (for example 64 cycles, so set the timebase at 200 µs). In this way, the influence of the jitter in the measure is minimized.In the IFR tool of the GUI, perform a “Read” of the current IFR configuration, then tick the check-box “LS crystalmeasure” and then perform a “Write” operation.Now a power cycle is required to let the new IFR be operative.At this point, the 32.768 kHz waveform is visible on the oscilloscope screen.Perform the measurement of the frequency: the difference between the target value (f 32.768 kHz) and themeasured one is the frequency offset Δf.6.6Expected resultsIf DUT frequency 32.768 kHz increases XTAL capsIf DUT frequency 32.768 kHz decreases XTAL capsTo find the oscillator ppm, use the following formula:where:Δf offsetf 32.768 kHzAdd to the found ppm value the one declared in the adopted crystal datasheet.This final value must be used in the slave SCA and master SCA fields when BLE stack is initialized.AN4818 - Rev 8page 10/32

AN4818Note6.7NoteN/A.6.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 11/32

AN4818Output power test7Output power test7.1Test case specification identifierOUTPUT TESTS.7.2Test prerequisiteFor this test the UFL or SMA connector is mandatory.7.3Test descriptionThe aim of this test is verification of the Tx output power level and the step linearity.7.4Test setup7.4.1HardwareA spectrum analyzer is required for this test.7.4.2SoftwareThe ST BlueNRG GUI and DTM binary file loaded in the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices. Refer toSection 1.1 DTM test applications.7.5Test procedureConnect the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 boards to the spectrum analyzer through an RF cable. Set the spectrumanalyzer to: Res BW 100 kHz, SPAN 500 kHz.Power up the BlueNRG-1 platform.Generate a carrier wave tone at Ch0 (frequency 2.401750 GHz) using the BlueNRG GUI, RF test window: Check high power to use BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 in high power mode For the step linearity of the Tx output power, select power level to 0x06 Click on start transmitter button to generate a carrier waveThe same results can be achieved by using the ACI commands: ACI HAL SET TX POWER LEVEL (En High Power 0x01,PA Level: 0x06) ACI HAL TONE START (RF Channel 0x00, offset 0x02)7.6Expected resultsWith PA level 0x07: around 8 dBmWith PA level 0x06: around 4 dBm7.7NoteThe results are significantly influenced by the matching network performance. The user may need to tune it toobtain maximum performance.7.8OtherN/AAN4818 - Rev 8page 12/32

AN4818OtherFigure 6. Output power measurement in high power mode with PA level 7Figure 7. Output power measurement in high power mode with PA level 6AN4818 - Rev 8page 13/32

AN4818Packet exchange test8Packet exchange test8.1Test case specification identifierPACKET TEST.8.2Test prerequisiteIn order to perform these tests, you need a BlueNRG-1 development platform as a master and the DUT board asa slave.8.3Test descriptionThe aim of this test is to verify that the DUT board is able to send and receive packets correctly.8.4Test setup8.4.1HardwareNo instruments required.8.4.2SoftwareThe ST BlueNRG GUI and DTM binary file related to the selected BLE stack modular configuration option loadedin the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 devices. Refer to Section 1.1 DTM test applications.8.5Test procedurePower up the BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 platform (Rx) and the DUT board, that acts as Tx and ensures antennais plugged in.Follow these steps to start packet exchange test:In the GUI related to Rx device Go to RF test window, RECEIVER section Set Rx frequency Click on "Start Receiver" button, to start "Receiver Test"In the GUI related to Tx device Go to RF test window, TRANSMITTER section Set Tx power Set Tx frequency Set length of data to 0x25 Set packet payload format Click on "Start Transmitter" button, to start "Transmitter Test"In the GUI related to Tx device Click on "Stop Transmitter" button. The number of transmitted packets are displayed On #Packet Transmitted fieldIn the GUI related to Rx device Click on "Stop Receiver" button. The number of received packets are displayed on #Packet Received field In the PER section, insert the number of transmitted packet from Tx device in the packet transmitted field(read this value from TRANSMITTER section in the GUI related to Tx device) PER (packet error rate) value is showed in the packet error rate fieldThe same results can be achieved by using the ACI commands: Start Rx on DUT: HCI LE RECEIVER TESTAN4818 - Rev 8page 14/32

AN4818Expected results 8.6Make the Tx board send packets: HCI LE TRASMITTER TEST, with the length of test data: 0x25Stop test on Tx board: HCI LE TEST ENDSend this command in order to determine the number of packets sent by the Tx:ACI HAL LE TX TEST PACKET NUMBERStop test on DUT: HCI LE TEST ENDThis returns Y as the number of received packetsExpected resultsThe number of packets received over-the-air should be equal to the number of packets sent by the Tx board.8.7NoteN/A.8.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 15/32

AN4818Sensitivity test9Sensitivity test9.1Test case specification identifierSENSITIVITY TEST.9.2Test prerequisiteTwo different hardware configurations can be adopted for this test:1.A signal generator (Agilent E4438C, controlled through a GPIB interface) as Tx and the BlueNRG-1 board(DUT) connected as shown in Figure 1. UFL connector.ST BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 demo kit as Tx device and BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 board (DUT).2.9.3Test descriptionThe aim of this test is to verify the sensitivity level of the DUT board.9.4Test setup9.4.1HardwareTx: Agilent E4438C signal generator or ST BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 demo kit.Rx: DUT application board to test (see Figure 1. UFL connector).9.4.2SoftwareST BlueNRG GUI and DTM binary file related to the selected BLE stack modular configuration option loaded inthe BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 device. Refer to Section 1.1 DTM test applications.9.5Test procedureTwo procedures can be used.9.5.1Signal generator and DUT boardThe sensitivity can be evaluated by performing the following steps:1.Connect the instrument and DUT with an RF cable (with no significant loss)2.Start Rx on DUT: on RF test window click on "Start Receiver" button3.Make the generator send X packets (well-formatted as described in “Direct Test Mode”, vol. 6, part F, and“Host Controller Interface Functional Specification”, vol. 2, part E, in point 3 Section 13 References)4.Stop test on DUT: on RF test window click on stop receiver buttonOn packet received tab there is the number of received packets. PER is 1-Y/X.If PER is below 0.308 (30.8%), go back to step 2 and decrease the power of the transmitter by one step. If PERgoes above 0.308, then the level of power emitted by the equipment in the previous test is the sensitivity of thereceiver. The algorithm can be more accurate by reducing the power level step when it is close to the sensitivitylevel.The same results can be achieved by directly using the ACI commands:1.Connect the instrument and DUT with an RF cable (with no significant loss)2.Start Rx on DUT: HCI LE RECEIVER TEST3.Make the generator send X packets (well-formatted as described in “Direct Test Mode”, vol. 6, part F, and“Host Controller Interface Functional Specification”, vol. 2, part E, in point 3 Section 13 References)4.Stop test on DUT: HCI LE TEST ENDThis returns Y as the number of received packets. PER is 1-Y/X.AN4818 - Rev 8page 16/32

AN4818Expected resultsIf PER is below 0.308 (30.8%), go back to step b and decrease the power of the transmitter by one step. If PERgoes above 0.308, then the level of power emitted by the equipment in the previous test is the sensitivity of thereceiver.The algorithm can be more accurate by reducing the power level step when it is close to the sensitivity level.9.5.2ST demo kit and DUT boardIn this case, the previous procedure changes in the following way:1.Connect RF input/output of the two boards, DUT and ST BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2, by using a variableattenuatorIn the GUI related to DUT Rx device2.–Go to RF test window, RECEIVER section–Set Rx frequency–Click on "Start Receiver" button, to start "Receiver Test"3.In the GUI related to Tx device–Go to RF test window, TRANSMITTER section–Set Tx power–Set Tx frequency–Set length of data to 0x25–Set packet payload format–Click on "Start Transmitter" button, to start "Transmitter Test"4.In the GUI related to Tx device–Click on "Stop Transmitter" button. The number of transmitted packets are displayed on #PacketTransmitted field.5.In the GUI related to DUT Rx device–Click on "Stop Receiver" button. The number of received packets are displayed on #Packet Receivedfield6.In PER section, insert the number of transmitted packet from Tx device in the packet transmitted field (readthis value from TRANSMITTER section in the GUI related to Tx device)7.PER (packet error rate) value is showed in the packet error rate fieldIf PER is below 0.308 (30.8%), go back to step 2 and increase the value of attenuation. If PER goes above 0.308,then the level of power received by DUT in the previous test is the sensitivity of the receiver. It is very important tomeasure correctly or estimate the power received by DUT (for example: by using a tone instead of a modulatedsignal).Moreover, in order to reduce the level of the signal received over-the-air by DUT, the ST BlueNRG-1 andBlueNRG-2 demo kit should use the minimum output power. Performing the measurements inside an anechoicchamber also gives more accurate results.The same results can be achieved by using ACI commands:1.Connect the RF input/output of the two boards, DUT and STM BlueNRG-1, by using a variable attenuator2.Start Rx on DUT: HCI LE RECEIVER TEST3.Make the board send packets: HCI LE TRANSMITTER TEST, with the length of test data: 0x254.Stop test on the board: HCI LE TEST END5.Send a further command to determine the number of packets sent by the board:ACI HAL LE TX TEST PACKET NUMBER6.Stop test on DUT: HCI LE TEST ENDThis returns Y as the number of received packets. PER is 1-Y/X.If PER is below 0.308 (30.8%), go back to step 2 and increase the value of the attenuation. If PER goes above0.308, then the level of power received by DUT in the previous test is the sensitivity of the receiver.9.6Expected resultsThe expected value should be a few dB from the value reported in the datasheet. If it is not so, the reason couldbe related to the matching network.AN4818 - Rev 8page 17/32

AN4818Note9.7NoteSince the sensitivity test is very time-consuming, ST can provide a specific software for both hardwareconfigurations in order to implement an automatic procedure.9.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 18/32

AN4818Power consumption in advertising mode10Power consumption in advertising mode10.1Test case specification identifierCURRENT TEST.10.2Test prerequisiteIn order to perform this test the platform must be provided with the test points in series with Vbat1, 2, 3 pins (seeTable 1. Test points).10.3Test descriptionThe aim of this test is to verify that BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 current consumption profile during the advertising isaligned with the simulated value (for simulated values use the BlueNRG current consumption estimation tool(STSW-BNRG001) available on www.st.com.10.4Test setup10.4.1HardwareAgilent N6705B power analyzer or an oscilloscope.10.4.2SoftwareThis test uses an application, which puts the device in advertising mode (i.e. sensor demo example available onthe BlueNRG-1 2 DK development kit/STSW-BLUENRG1-DK, on Firmware/BLE Examples folder).10.5Test procedureThe power analyzer has to be connected in series to Vbat pins in BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2. If it is notavailable, a 10 Ohm resistor has to be used to sense the current, connecting two probes to it.Power up the BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 platform and load a firmware so that the device is in advertising mode, forexample a sensor demo. Capture the current waveform.10.6Expected resultsThe average current should be reported here (see Figure 8. Typical current profile during an advertising event):Average current approx. 6 mASleep current approx. 2 µA (see Section 13 References #1)These values are significantly influenced by the device configuration parameters, such as: the HS Startup Time,the stack mode and the 32 kHz crystal (external or internal ring oscillator)AN4818 - Rev 8page 19/32

AN4818NoteFigure 8. Typical current profile during an advertising event10.7NoteN/A.10.8OtherN/A.AN4818 - Rev 8page 20/32

AN4818RF tests for certification11RF tests for certificationTests described in this application note should be used to check the basic functionality of the BlueNRG-1,BlueNRG-2 devices on prototype boards.Before Bluetooth trademark can be used on BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 devices, the company must complete theBluetooth compliance program, that means the board must be qualified and listed.Since BlueNRG-1 is an already qualified product, a board using the BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 device does nothave to re-run all Bluetooth tests. However, when using BlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 support in a new RF design, theRF-PHY layer must be tested yet.Below RF tests to be performed (RF-PHY.TS/4.2.0): TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-01-C [output power at NOC] TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-02-C [output power at EOC] TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-03-C [in-band emissions at NOC] TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-04-C [in-band emissions at EOC] TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-05-C [modulation characteristics] TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-06-C [carrier frequency offset and drift at NOC] TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-07-C [carrier frequency offset and drift at EOC] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-01-C [receiver sensitivity at NOC] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-02-C [receiver sensitivity at EOC] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-03-C [C/I and receiver selectivity performance] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-04-C [blocking performance] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-05-C [intermodulation performance] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-06-C [maximum input signal level] TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-07-C [PER report integrity]Moreover, depending on the country of use, an RF product must be compliant with one or more standards beforeit can be sold. In particular, Bluetooth low energy products, which operate in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHz,must be compliant to: FCC part 15.205, 15.209, 15.247 in North America ETSI EN 300 328 in Europe ARIB STD-T66 in JapanBluetooth LE tests can be manually performed, but some instruments exist to simplify and automate the testingprocess.Usually these instruments operate in two modes: Signaling mode Non-signaling mode11.1Signaling modeIn this mode, the instrument can autonomously perform the tests. DUT (device under test) must be connected tothe instrument with an RF cable. Moreover, DUT has to be connected to one instrument port so to be controlledby the instrument itself (to start/stop test and receive feedback from DUT). BlueNRG-1 and BlueNRG-2 supportthe direct test mode over HCI, which allows testing low energy PHY layer (see Bluetooth specifications, core v4.1,vol. 6, part F: direct test mode).AN4818 - Rev 8page 21/32

AN4818Non-signaling modeFigure 9. Signaling mode RF testsOn the test equipment, the serial port for communication with DUT is typically an RS232 interface. BlueNRG-1and BlueNRG-2 are already provided with UART interface.11.2Non-signaling modeIn non-signaling mode a third entity (e.g. a PC) controls both DUT and Test instrument at the same time. Typically,the instrument can be controlled by using proprietary commands. The native communication interface ofBlueNRG-1, BlueNRG-2 is UART and this interface can be connected to PC via a serial to USB converter.AN4818 - Rev 8page 22/32

AN4818Non-signaling modeFigure 10. Non-signaling mode RF testsAN4818 - Rev 8page 23/32

AN4818RF tests for board manufacturing12RF tests for board manufacturingOnce the final board has been designed and sent to production, the manufacturer may want to run some basictests to be confident that the device works correctly. The minimal set of suggested tests is:Output power (see Section 7 Output power test) and crystal frequency centering test (see Section 5 XTAL centering test) Packet exchange test (see Section 8 Packet exchange test)Some of these tests can also be performed by dedicated instruments, as described in Section 11.1 Signalingmode. In

No specific firmware is needed for this test. 2.2 Test prerequisite In order to perform this test, you need to add some test points to the platform. Refer to Section 1 Application PCB test points for test pin description. 2.3 Test description The aim of this test is to ensure that the Blue