Transcription

Heiko BernerPhoto-Illustrations for ThomasBernhard’s A ChildFotografische Illustrationen zuThomas Bernhards Ein Kinded. by Ernest Schonfield and Katya Krylova

Heiko BernerPhoto-Illustrations for ThomasBernhard’s A ChildFotografische Illustrationen zuThomas Bernhards Ein Kinded. by Ernest Schonfield and Katya KrylovaSchool of Modern Languages and CulturesUniversity of Glasgow2019

Photographs copyright 2019 Heiko Berner.Texts copyright 2019 the respective authors and editors: Heiko Berner, Byron Spring,Ernest Schonfield, Katya Krylova.ISBN: 978-0-85261-968-1Published by the School of Modern Languages and Cultures, University of Glasgow, 2019.Exhibition catalogue for the photo exhibition by Heiko Berner in June 2020 at the GoetheInstitut Glasgow, alongside the conference ‘Thomas Bernhard: Language, History,Subjectivity’, organized by Katya Krylova (University of Aberdeen) and Ernest Schonfield(University of Glasgow), 11-12 June 2020.Thomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind is copyright: 1982 Residenz Verlag GmbHSalzburg – WienQuotations from Ein Kind are used here with the kind permission of Residenz Verlag.Published with the support of the Goethe-Institut Glasgowand the Histories and Subjectivities Research Cluster, School of Modern Languages andCultures, University of GlasgowThe Thomas Bernhard conference is also supported by the Ingeborg Bachmann Centre forAustrian Literature and Culture at the Institute of Modern Languages Research, London:

Contents / InhaltAbbreviations / Abkürzungen4Heiko BernerForewordVorwort57Heiko BernerPlaces and Movement in Thomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind:Features of a Narrative IdentityOrte und Bewegung in Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind:Merkmale einer narrativen Identität17Ernest SchonfieldThe Family Spectacle in Thomas Bernhard’s Ein KindDas Familienspektakel in Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind2531Byron SpringTopography of a Relationship: Thomas Bernhard’s Ein KindTopographie einer Beziehung: Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind3743Heiko BernerPhoto-Illustrations for Thomas Bernhard’s A ChildFotografische Illustrationen zu Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind4949Contributors / Mitwirkende9593

Abbreviations / AbkürzungenAbbreviations refer to the following editions:EKThomas Bernhard, Ein Kind. Salzburg: Residenz Verlag, 1982.WThomas Bernhard, Werke, vol. 10: Die Autobiographie. Ed. byMartin Huber and Manfred Mittermayer. Frankfurt am Main:Suhrkamp, 2004.GEThomas Bernhard, Gathering Evidence: A Memoir. Trans. byDavid McLintock. London: Vintage, 2003.Quotations from Ein Kind are copyright: 1982 Residenz Verlag GmbHSalzburg – Wien4

ForewordThomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind (A Child) begins with the departure of the eight-year-oldnarrator with the Steyr-Waffen bicycle that belongs to his guardian. Initially full of euphoria,he tries to ride the 36 kilometers from Traunstein to Salzburg, but has to give up after justunder twenty kilometers with a broken chain and – meanwhile it is night – return on foot.This picture, like a prologue, contains the whole emotional range that the child experiencesin the text: the courage to act, feelings of triumph and of failure, the need to impress thegrandfather, fear of the mother’s reaction. Here the bicycle is a technical means and at thesame time a symbol of external and internal movement.The series ‘Photographic Illustrations to Thomas Bernhard’s A Child’, producedbetween 2008 and 2013, shows the locations of this child’s biography in the order in whichthey are arranged by the narrator. The series foregrounds objects, buildings and landscapesthat are mentioned in the text. Some of the pictures are rich in details that refer to the text.Others, on the other hand, leave empty spaces; they remain without ‘punctum’, as RolandBarthes would put it. They are more like theatre scenery or backdrops that can be filled infictitiously with the help of the accompanying text passages.The series simulates a documentary style through its use of black and white, but it iscomposed aesthetically. For one thing, all the shots were taken in autumn and winter toaccord with the mood of the text. For another thing, the photographs cannot show thesethings at the time the text refers to them, i.e. the 1930s and 40s. Rather, they play with thetemporal levels ‘then’ and ‘now’, and in this way they aim systematically just alongside theplot of the story; they are, intentionally, a series of near misses. It thus becomes clear that thephotos do not try to capture Bernhard’s real life story, instead they remain distanced from it.So if there is a reference, it is the fiction of the artistic work.The exhibition catalogue shows the entire series of 22 photographs and the coverphotograph of a Steyr-Waffen bicycle. This was – in contrast to the depiction in the text –not photographed on the drive from Traunstein to Salzburg, but is located next to ‘the cellar’,the grocery in the Lehen district of Salzburg where the sixteen-year-old Bernhard was trainedas an apprentice. This staging breaks with supposed authenticity. Thus, the photos adopt astylistic device that Bernhard himself practices in the text: time and again he deviates fromreal-life data in his autobiographical narration.The catalogue has an additional purpose: it not only reproduces the photographs, butalso takes them as an opportunity for an academic discussion of the text.5

The illustrations are preceded by three contributions that deal with Ein Kind fromliterary and educational points of view. The first article, ‘Locations and Movement in ThomasBernhard’s Ein Kind’ by Heiko Berner uses a methodology derived from biographicalresearch. The focus here is on the protagonist’s personality development and how he findsnew ways of acting, which he has to test in new situations in his life. In his contribution ‘TheFamily Spectacle in Thomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind’, Ernest Schonfield interprets the story asa dramatic staging, connecting this with Bernhard’s subsequent development as a writer.Finally, Byron Spring analyses Bernhard’s textual language in ‘Topography of a Relationship:Thomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind’ and notes parallels between the grandfather’s speech andBernhard’s later writing style.All texts and quotations appear here in both English and German. The bilingualformat of this catalogue is in accordance with the context in which it appears: Bernhard wrotehis works in German; and the exhibition of the photo series will be shown in June 2020 at theGoethe-Institut Glasgow to accompany the academic conference ‘Thomas Bernhard:Language, History, Subjectivity’, organized by Ernest Schonfield (University of Glasgow)and Katya Krylova (University of Aberdeen).Heiko BernerSalzburg, November 20196

VorwortThomas Bernhards Ein Kind beginnt mit dem Aufbruch des achtjährigen Erzählers mit demSteyr-Waffenrad seines Vormunds. Er versucht voller Euphorie die 36 Kilometer vonTraunstein nach Salzburg zu radeln, muss aber nach knapp zwanzig Kilometern mitgerissener Kette aufgeben und – mittlerweile ist es Nacht – zu Fuß zurückkehren. In diesemBild ist, gleich einem Prolog, die ganze emotionale Bandbreite angelegt, die das Kind in derErzählung durchlebt: der Mut zum Handeln, das Gefühl des Triumphs, das Bedürfnis, demGroßvater zu imponieren, das Scheitern, die Angst vor der Reaktion der Mutter. Das Fahrradist hierbei technisches Mittel und zugleich Symbol äußerer und innerer Bewegtheit.Die Serie „Fotografische Illustrationen zu Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind“, entstandenzwischen 2008 und 2013, zeigt die Orte dieser Lebensgeschichte des Kindes in derReihenfolge, in der sie der Erzähler selbst ordnet. Sie rückt Gegenstände, Gebäude undLandschaften, die im Text erwähnt werden ins Zentrum. Einige der Bilder sind reich anDetails, die auf den Text referieren. Andere dagegen lassen Leerstellen, bleiben ganz ohne„punctum“, wie Roland Barthes es nennen würde. Sie gleichen eher Theaterkulissen, dieentlang der begleitenden Textpassagen fiktiv gefüllt werden können.Die Serie simuliert durch ihre Ausarbeitung in schwarz-weiß einen dokumentarischenStil, ist dabei aber ästhetisch überformt. Zum einen wurden alle Aufnahmen im Herbst undWinter gemacht, um die Stimmung des Textes zu erhalten. Zum anderen zeigen sie die Dingenicht – und können dies auch nicht! – in der Zeit der Handlung, also den 1930er und 40erJahren. Vielmehr spielen sie mit den zeitlichen Ebenen „früher“ und „heute“ und treffen aufdiese Weise systematisch immer knapp an der Handlung vorbei. Damit wurde schon deutlich,dass die Fotos nicht versuchen, die reale Lebensgeschichte Bernhards einzufangen, sondernsie bleiben distanziert. Wenn es also eine Referenz gibt, so ist es die Fiktion des dichterischenTextes.Der Ausstellungskatalog zeigt die ganze Serie von 22 Fotografien und dervorgelagerten Aufnahme eines Waffenrads. Dieses wurde – anders als im Text erzählt – nichtauf der Fahrt von Traunstein nach Salzburg fotografiert, sondern befindet sich direkt neben„dem Keller“, dem Laden, in dem Bernhard später seine Ausbildung im Salzburger StadtteilLehen machte. Auch diese Inszenierung bricht mit vermeintlicher Authentizität. Damitfolgen die Fotos einem Stilmittel, das auch Bernhard selbst im Text praktiziert: immer wiederweicht er in seiner autobiografisch angelegten Narration von seinen realen Lebensdaten ab.7

Der Katalog hat aber noch einen weiteren Anspruch: Er reproduziert nicht nur dieBilder, sondern nimmt sie auch zum Anlass für die wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mitdem Text.Den Bildern vorgelagert sind drei Beiträge, die sich aus literatur- und ausbildungswissenschaftlicher Sicht mit Ein Kind auseinandersetzen. Der erste Artikel, „Orteund Bewegung in Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind“ von Heiko Berner, wendet eine Methode enhierdiePersönlichkeitsentwicklung und neue Handlungsweisen des Protagonisten, die er in immerwieder neuen Lebenssituationen erproben muss. Ernest Schonfield fasst in seinem Artikel„Das Familienspektakel in Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind“ die Geschichte als theatralische,dramatische Inszenierung auf und plausibilisiert mit dieser Beobachtung die spätereEntwicklung Bernhards hin zum Schriftsteller. Byron Spring analysiert schließlich in„Topographie einer Beziehung: Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind“ die Sprache der Autobiografieund stellt Parallelen zwischen dem Redestil des Großvaters und dem späteren SchreibstilBernhards selbst fest.Alle Beiträge und Zitate erscheinen hier sowohl auf Englisch als auch auf Deutsch.Damit wird der vorliegende Band seinem Erscheinungskontext gerecht: Bernhards Werkesind im Original auf Deutsch verfasst; die Ausstellung der Fotoserie wird im Juni 2020 amGoethe-Institut Glasgow anlässlich der literaturwissenschaftlichen Tagung „ThomasBernhard: Language, History, Subjectivity“ gezeigt, die von Ernest Schonfield (UniversitätGlasgow) and Katya Krylova (Universität Aberdeen) organisiert wird.Heiko BernerSalzburg, November 20198

Places and Movement in Thomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind:Features of a Narrative IdentityHeiko BernerThe photographic series ‘Photo-Illustrations to Thomas Bernhard’s Ein Kind’ traces theaction of the text in pictures. This is its main intention. The series shows different placeswhere the protagonist lived and tries to provide suitable scenery for his emotional states. Butit also offers visual commentary on the developmental stages that he undergoes. The subjectof this article is the development of his personality.First of all, it must be said that neither the photo series nor the present essay intendto trace real locations where Thomas Bernhard lived or biographical stations of his life.Others have already attempted to do this in detail. Please refer to the website‘www.thomasbernard.at’ or to his richly illustrated biography (Mittermayer 2015). OftenBernhard’s autobiographical novels are referred to as autobiographical narratives (e.g.Stocker 2018, Theisen 2002). This view is not shared here. Rather, they will be referred to asnovels throughout, as it should be assumed that such retrospective biographical narratives inany case refer less to the actual happenings, but rather present a momentary image of thepersonality of the narrator, similar to a lyrical ‘I’ in a poem. The symbolic value contained inthe stories should therefore be considered as more important than any supposedly realcorrespondences with Thomas Bernhard’s own life history.In the following essay, the changing identity of the first-person narrator is madevisible with the help of the illustrations. The narrator is understood here as a so-callednarrative identity (Koller 2012a). This means that identity is subject to construction throughthe mediation of a life story: in retrospect, from the perspective of the time of narration, thenarrator constructs his own life story and thus his current identity. Methodologically,biographical research based on educational science can be used to decipher the narrativeidentity. In this context, identity development is always connected with educationalprocesses.The following essay focuses on a key moment of change and its active shaping by theprotagonist, namely, his ability to move between the important places of his everyday life andto escape from them. This ability, which he develops in the course of the book, enables him tobecome – as far as possible – a self-determined actor.9

Education between school and everyday lifeOne location that keeps appearing in Ein Kind is the school and the experiences theprotagonist has there. These experiences are mainly catastrophic, except for the relationshipwith his first teacher at primary school. He is regarded as an ‘Unfriedenstifter’ at primaryschool (EK 123; W 481); ‘trouble-maker’ (GE 54) and is – as he repeatedly describes –systematically humiliated and marginalized. School education is virtually absent in this fictivebiographical narrative. However, education is to be understood here in a wider sense as acrisis-induced transformation of self and world conditions (Koller 2012b). Education,understood in this way, thus refers less to institutionalized education, but rather to processesrelated to everyday experiences. In this sense, the boy goes through significant educationalprocesses, as will be shown. Crises in the boy’s life occur, for example, when he relocates withhis mother and keeps having to adapt to his new surroundings. Crisis does not only refer toexistentially threatening shocks; it can also refer to encounters with new and strangeelements that disrupt everyday life and make habitual actions lose their effectiveness. Undernew circumstances, routine actions have to be jettisoned, and in a trial-and-error procedure,new forms of action must be tried out until they lead to success (Dewey 2008 [orig. 1916]).The new actions can, for example, be based on past experiences or role models (Oevermann1991). In the reconstruction of his/her life story, a narrator usually tries to conceive acoherent unity, and has at least ‘a partial interest in interpreting’ his/her own story (Bourdieu1998, p. 76). This interpretation does not necessarily have to be consciously brought about.It often takes place intuitively and can be explained by the need to represent each story as asingle unit (Nohl 2012, p. 22f). Usually the narrator does not look back at his/her lifechronologically. From the sequencing of life events and the different emphases placed onthem, one can even draw conclusions about the significance that the narrator attaches to therespective event at the moment of narration. Methods of biographical research can help todecipher narratives. Normally, the life story is reconstructed as an overview and contrastedwith the narrator’s point of view (Schütze 1983, p. 284). Particular attention is given to crises,which may be the occasion for new storytelling sequences and educational processes. One wayto trace the development of the narrator’s personality is to look for shifts in the meaning ofcentral terms which recur in the story (Koller 2012b). If a term is used repeatedly and acquiresdifferent meanings in the course of the story, this indicates a change in the personality of thenarrator.10

Places and movementEin Kind can be divided into three narrative sequences, which are in turn divided into smallerunits. Continually recurring motifs are homes or everyday places and journeys, whetherbetween places or away from them. The first long passage takes place when the protagonistis eight years old. It relates his attempt to ride his guardian’s Steyr-Waffen bicycle from hishome in Traunstein to his aunt Fanny in Salzburg. That is a distance of 36 kilometers, almostimpossible for a boy who is too small to sit on the bike seat and who is undertaking such along journey for the first time. After about two-thirds of the way, the bike chain breaks andhe is forced to walk, pushing the bike to the previous village. On his way back he makesseveral stop-offs, until he finally reaches his grandparents’ apartment early in the morning.The second sequence begins when the first-person narrator recounts his childhoodstory, which is punctuated by movement between different places (EK 56ff., W 439 ff., GE 25ff.). The first key stage is the circumstances of his birth in the Netherlands. The mother fledthere because she had been abandoned by the child’s father and, as a single woman inconservative Austria in 1931, did not want to give birth to the child. When the boy is twoyears old, mother and son move to Vienna, where they can live in the home of their maternalgrandparents. When the boy is four, the family move to Seekirchen am Wallersee, which isnear Henndorf, the birthplace of his grandfather. Within Seekirchen, the family moves again.Here the boy meets Hippinger Hans; they become friends and begin school together. The boyis now in third grade when the family moves to Traunstein because the boy’s guardian (hisstepfather) has found a job there. Later, an apartment in Ettendorf near Traunstein is foundfor the grandparents and they also move there.The third passage takes place after the boy makes his escape attempt with the SteyrWaffen bicycle (EK 100; W 482; GE 55). From this point on, the narrative develops beyondthis initial context. This is followed by the intrusion of National Socialism into the narrative,the stay in a children’s home in Thuringia and the last years of World War Two.The bicycle rideIn the first big sequence, which is framed by the cycle ride of the eight-year-old protagonist,the central themes of the novel are introduced. These are topics that the narrator specifies,and in terms of which his later development can be evaluated. The following passage shows11

that the excursion is a turning point in his life – an essential moment of a developmentalprocess: ‘Insgeheim war ich mir mit meinem Großvater einig: ich hatte an diesem Tag diegrößte Entdeckung meines bisherigen Lebens gemacht, ich hatte meiner Existenz eine neueWendung gegeben’ (EK 10, W 409) ‘Secretly I was at one with my grandfather, for on thisday I had made the greatest discovery of my life so far, I had given my existence a new turn’(GE 4). Contrary to what has been said above, however, hardly any crisis can be identifiedhere that could have been the occasion for the change. Only a brief but cryptic comment givesany indication of critical conditions, when the boy says: ‘Die Meinigen [.] müßten einsehen,daß ich mich doch immer, gegen die größten Hemmnisse und Widerstände, durchsetzte undSieger sei!’ (EK 9; W 408) ‘My people [ ] would have to realise that I always succeeded inwhatever I set my mind to, despite any constraint and opposition, and emerged as victor! (GE3-4). The boy is particularly motivated by the prospect of being admired and enjoying atriumph (EK 8, W 408, GE 3). A more definite crisis is the broken bike chain which forces theboy to return to Traunstein with a broken bike. However, he is so sure of his grandfather’sapproval that he can even interpret the defeat as a triumph – simply because he took actionand showed courage, both qualities valued by his grandfather. On the way he particularlywants his grandfather’s respect: ‘Vor allem wünschte ich, [ ] mein wie nichts auf der Weltgeliebter Großvater könnte mich auf dem Fahrrad sehen.’ (EK 9, W 408); ‘Above all, I wished[ ] that I could be seen by my grandfather, the person I loved more than anyone else in theworld’ (GE 4). This introduces one of the two characters of the novel who are important tothe boy. At the same time, his relationship to his grandfather is defined more closely: on theone hand, it is his love for him, and on the other hand, the desire to be recognized by him,which drives his actions. But this desire for recognition has its price. The boy functions forthe grandfather as a projection screen for the self-glorification that he himself has been unableto experience. One could say that the grandfather instrumentalizes him and encourages himto become an artist, even though his own life as an artist is threatening to destroy him. Themother – daughter of the grandfather – once sought a career as a dancer, but had to give itup due to illness. The mother is the second central person in the boy’s life. She is introducedas he pushes the broken bike back to Traunstein and he imagines her reaction: ‘Entsetzt stellteich mir den Zustand meiner Mutter vor, wie sie, nicht zum erstenmal, die Polizeiwachstubeim Rathaus betritt, ratlos, wütend, von dem schrecklichen, fürchterlichen Kind stammelnd.’(EK 13; W 410-11; italics in original); ‘It was with the utmost alarm that I imagined the statemy mother must be in, as she went to the police station at the town hall, furious and at herwit’s end, stammering complaints about her terrible, dreadful child’ (GE 5). Later in the novel,one learns that the mother’s discontent with the child is linked to her broken relationship12

with the child’s father. He had left her before the boy was born. She projects her dislike onthe boy by insulting him: ‘[ ] du hast mir noch gefehlt oder Du bist mein ganzes Unglück, Dichsoll der Teufel holen’ (EK 38, W 426, italics in original) ‘You’re all I needed or You’re the cause ofall my unhappiness. Damn you!’ (GE 17) for example, or by beating him with the whip (GE 16).Both persons are connected with specific locations: the mother with the provincialtown of Traunstein, and the grandfather with the village of Ettendorf, which lies aboveTraunstein and which is described as ‘holy’. These antitheses are given various attributes: thevillage versus the petty bourgeoisie; the sacred versus the profane. This polarity isparticularly evident in the following passage:Ich stieg aus den Niederungen empor. Ich ließ alles zurück, was engstirnig, schmutzig,im Grund nichts als ekelerregend war. Ich ließ den abscheulichen Geruch einer dumpfenWelt hinter mir, in welcher die Hilflosigkeit und die Gemeinheit an der Macht sind.Etwas Feierliches kam in meinen Gang, die Atemzüge weiteten sich, bergauf, zumeinem Großvater, zu meiner höchsten Instanz’ (EK 24, W 418)Climbing up from the plain, I left behind me everything that was petty and dirty andquite simply nauseating. I left behind me the stench of an airless world dominated byhelplessness and depravity. A certain solemnity entered my gait and I breathed a widerair as I walked up the hill to visit my grandfather, the highest authority I recognised.(GE 11)This also shows how important mobility and independent movement are for the boy.Escape and ReturnIn the second part of the text, we learn that the polarization between mother and grandfather,as symbolised by the villages of Traunstein and Ettendorf, is not so definite after all. Herethe family circumstances are described in more detail. The complexity of the situationbecomes evident when the first-person narrator describes his legal guardian. Now it becomesclear that mother and grandfather, although representing different poles, belong to a commonentity, the family. At one point he says of his mother that: ‘Sie verehrte einen Despoten, derihr geliebter Vater war und der es unbewußt naturgemäß auf ihre Vernichtung anlegte. In13

dessen Nähe man nur entkommen und sich erretten konnte, wenn man sich ihmbedingungslos unterordnete, weil man ihn liebte’ (EK 43, W 430); ‘In the person of her muchloved father she revered a despot, who without being aware of it, was out to annihilate her,and in whose proximity it was impossible to escape and survive only by subjecting oneselfunconditionally to him because one loved him’ (GE 19). The boy perceives his family as a selfdestructive unit, which is permanently on a ‘Drahtseilakt’ (EK 44, W 431) ‘a tightrope act’(GE 19). He describes them as a ‘Zirkusfamilie, die sich niemals und auch nicht einenAugenblick gestattete, von dem Seil herunterzusteigen’ (EK 45, W 431) ‘a circus family [ ]who never for one moment allowed themselves to get off the rope’ (GE 20). The boy’s legalguardian, on the other hand, now represents a new opposite pole: he represents a normalitywhich is unattainable for those who, in a strict sense, ‘belong’ to the family: i.e., thegrandfather, the mother and the boy.Movement, in the form of several relocations, is the second major theme of Part Two.The mother gives birth to the boy in the Netherlands, the two later move to Vienna, fromthere to Seekirchen and finally to Traunstein. The child is still too young to have anyinfluence on these displacements. He is largely directed by others, dependent on the decisionsof the adults in the family. Mobility can, however, also happen in a self-determined way, andthis is already revealed by the description of the repeated escape to the grandfather inEttendorf. The boy’s pressing need for self-determined mobility is now all the more evidentin his response to his problems at the Traunstein primary school (picture 4 of the series).From the outset, he has a skepticism about school which he has acquired from his grandfather.The school is a place of social exclusion: as an ‘Austrian’ among Germans, as a tenant amonghomeowners and as the offspring of a family of artists in a small-town milieu. Above all, hishumiliation by the teacher goes so far that one day he does not go to school in the morning(picture 18 of the series). He has an idea: he boards the train with the cheap platform ticketand spends the morning travelling on the train (picture 20 of the series). The train ride canbe read as a new break from social and family constraints, in addition to the prototypical bikeride at the beginning of the story and the escapes to Ettendorf. It occurs shortly after the bikeexperience. It now becomes clear that breaking out is by no means merely an attempt to winadmiration, as was previously suggested, but rather that the boy is enduring a long-termcrisis situation. It is not so much the broken bicycle chain and the associated return home thatis a crisis, instead it is the social and family pressure the boy is exposed to, and which he triesto escape through flight. Returning is a necessity, because without it, he would jeopardize theconnection to the family on which he is so emotionally dependent.14

Mobility as a StrategyIn the third major section, which is increasingly shaped by the war and everyday life in theNazi regime, the boy has to go on a train journey again. Since he is classified by the socialworker as having behavioural problems and his mother cannot cope with raising him, he issent to a correctional facility in Thuringia. This is a misunderstanding, as his family haveapparently confused the Thuringian town of Saalfeld with the nearby Saalfelden in Austria.The boy does not know that it was a mistake. As a result, he feels betrayed and abandoned bythe family, especially by his grandfather. This circumstance can be regarded as important,because it causes the boy to choose ‘striking out on one’s own’, ‘lonesome flight’ as a preferredmeans of self-determination. Later, however, this attachment to flight is connected to apractical ability that leads to success in school: he proves to be an excellent runner and canscore points with these sporting skills, which were highly valued under fascism. And he cantransport goods by bicycle: ‘Das Steyr-Waffenrad hatte seine große Zeit. Von mir immerwieder mit Silberfarbe frisch gestrichen, durchradelte ich auf ihm die ganze weite Umgebungvon Traunstein’ (EK 157, W 503); ‘The Steyr-Waffen bicycle now had its time of glory. I wasconstantly painting it with silver paint and riding it all over the countryside aroundTraunstein’ (GE 69).In summary, it can be stated that the development of the boy is expressed by therecurrent use of the symbolically charged bicycle as well as by mobility in general. If, at thebeginning, the crisis seems linked to his failure to complete his journey, then the secondsection of the text shows that the crisis is actually rooted in social and family constraints. Thetemporary breakout is a strategy to become self-determined, without endangering the loveand recognition he needs from his two main attachment figures. In the end, the symbol of thebicycle acquires another dimension, as it becomes a very practical vehicle for coping with thedifficulties of food shortages. The motif of ‘lonesome flight’ develops so continuously in thenarrative and becomes a central strategy that accompanies the first-person narrator’spersonality development.Translation: Ernest Schonfield15

LiteratureBourdieu, Pierre (1998): Praktische Vernunft. Zur Theorie des Handelns. Frankfurt a.M.:Suhrkamp.Dewey, John (2008 [orig. 1916]): Democracy and Education. Radford: Wilder Publications.Koller, Hans-Christoph (2012a): Bildung anders denken. Einführung in die Theorietransformatorischer Bildungsprozesse. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Verlag.Koller, Hans-Christoph (2012b): ‘Anders werden. Zur Erforschung transformatorischerBildungsprozesse’. In: Qualitative Bildungsforschung und Bildungstheorie. Ed. by Ingrid Mietheand Hans-Rüdiger Müller. Opladen, Berlin, Toronto: Barbara Budrich, pp. 19-33.M

The focus here is on the protagonist’s personality development and how he finds . Das Fahrrad ist hierbei technisches Mittel und zugleich Symbol äußerer und innerer Bewegtheit. Die Serie „Fotografische Illustrationen zu Thomas Bernhards Ein Kind“, entstanden . Der Katalog hat aber noch einen weiteren Anspruch: Er reproduziert nicht .