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Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERSOLAR ECLIPSENEWSLETTERJuly 2003SUBSCRIBING TOTHE SOLARECLIPSE MAILINGLISTTHE SOLAR ECLIPSEMAILMAILING LIST IS MAI NTAINED BY THE LISTOWNER PATRICK POITEPOITEVIN AND WITH THE SUPSUPPORT OF JAN VAN GESTELHOW TO SUBSCRIBE:IN THE BODY OF THEM E S S A G ET [email protected] SUBSUBSCRIBE SOLARECLIPSESname, country.The Solar Eclipse Mailing ListThe Solar Eclipse Mailing List(SEML) is an electronic newsgroupdedicated to Solar Eclipses. Published by eclipse chaser omIt is a forum for discussing anythingand everything about eclipses.Thanks to the voluntary efforts ofJan Van Gestel of Geel, Belgium, theSolar Eclipse Mailing List(listserver) has been in operationsince 10 December 1997. This is thefirst mailing list devoted solely totopic of solar eclipses on the internet.You can send an e-mail message tothe list server [email protected], which will then forward your email to all the subscribers on the list.Likewise, you'll receive e-mail messages that other subscribers send tothe listserver. Only subscribers cansend messages.The sole Newsletter dedicated to Solar EclipsesDear All,If you have contributions to the solarEclipse Newsletter, please send themMay 2003 was busy for most of us. In thisto us and we will publish in the nextissue contributions and pictures of thenewsletters. No need to say, it shouldTransit of Mercury, the Total Lunar Eclipsebe solar eclipse related. But it is alland last but not least, the annular solarwelcome.eclipse. Some of them successful, some ofthem not at all.Keep up the good work and keepthose solar eclipse related messagesMany of us are preparing them for thecoming Transit of Venus in 2004. Quite a bit ofcontributions on this in the Solar Eclipse Best regards,Newsletter.Joanne and PatrickFrom no on, for the safety of the contributors, email addresses will not bementioned in fullanymore.Spamand hackers are tookeen to send anddump their messages to those addresses.The picture on thisfront page is fromLogan in Australia.More about it in thisissue as well.The next issue willbe ready soon. Wewere late with thisissue for variousreasons, but we arecatching up fast.Apologise for thosewhom were waitingfor the SENL issues.We hope though,that you will enjoy.

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERPage 2SECalendarJuly 2003Dear All,Please find herewith the solar eclipse calendar (SECalendar) for July. If youhave any additional information, queries or remarks, please drop us a mail.For the whole Solar Eclipse Calendar, see our Solar Eclipse WebPages mJuly 01, 1916 Iosif S. Shklovskii, Rusian astronomer was born. He researched the corona and proved the temperature of milliondegrees. (ref. DD 6/99).July 01, 1943 Birthday of Professor Jay Pasachoff. Asteroid 5100 Pasachoff was named after him. "Pasachoff's broad range ofastronomical work has centered on the sun, and especially on studies of solar eclipses."July 01, 2000 The last occurance that there were 3 eclipses in one month, and of which two solar eclipses. For July 2000 being on1stt a partial solar eclipse, 16th a total lunar eclipse, and 31st a partial solar eclipse. The next occurance with a month with 3eclipses will be December 2206 with a partial solar eclipse on 1st and 30th and a totla lunar eclipse on 16th. Ref. Fred Espenak06/00 SEML.July 02, 1963 Death of Seth B. Nicholson, American astronomer. Besides the discovery of some Jupiter moons and Minor Planets, his mean task was observing the sun. He published for many years the annual reports of sunspots and magnetism of the sun.(ref. DD 6/99).July 06, 1815 Total solar eclipse on the North Pole. Ref. More Mathematical Astronomical Morsels by Jean Meeus; WillmannBell, 2002.July 07, 1339 This was an annular-total eclipse, with the total part of the track finding its way between the Orkney and ShetlandIslands without touching either. At this location the track of totality was only 1 km wide, with a duration of 1 second! Presumingthat you could position a boat to an accuracy of 1 km, totality must have been a ring of Baily's Beads. (SW-UK Eclipse's)July 08, 1842 "The hour for the beginning of the eclipse approached. Nearly twenty thousand people, with smoked glasses inhand, examined the radiant globe projected on an azure sky. Scarcely had we, armed with our powerful telescopes, begun to perceive a small indentation on the western limb of the sun, when a great cry, a mingling of twenty thousand different cries, informedus that we had anticipated only by some seconds the observation made with the naked eye by twenty thousand unprepared astronomer. A lively curiosity, emulation and a desire not to be forestalled would seem to have given to their natural sight unusual penetration and power. Between this moment and those that preceded by very little the total disappearance of the sun we did not remarkin the countenances of many of the spectators anything that deserves to be related. But when the sun, reduced to a narrow thread,commenced to throw on our horizon a much-enfeebled light, a sort of uneasiness took possession of everyone. Each felt the needof communicating his impressions to those who surrounded him: hence a murmuring sound like that of a distant sea after a storm.The noise became louder as the solar crescent was reduced. The crescent at last disappeared, darkness suddenly succeeded thelight, and an absolute silence marked this phase of the eclipse so that we clearly heard the pendulum of our astronomical clock.The phenomenon in its magnificence triumphed over the petulance of youth, over the levity that certain men take as a sign of superiority, over the noisy indifference of which soldiers usually make profession. A profound calm reigned in the air; the birds sangno more. After a solemn waiting of about two minutes, transports of joy, frantic applause, saluted with the same accord, the samespontaneity, the reappearance of the first solar rays. A melancholy contemplation, produced by unaccountable feelings, was succeeded by a real and lively satisfaction of which no one thought of checking or moderating the enthusiasm. For the majority of thepublic the phenomenon was at an end. The other phases of the eclipse had hardly any attentive spectators, apart from devoted tothe study of astronomy." Refers to the total solar eclipse in the south of France, 8 July 1842 From: Camille Flamarion, Popular As(Continued on page 3)

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERPage 3SECalendartronomy, 1894. The words are those of François Arago. Reprinted, with permission, from The Sky: Order and Chaos by JeanPierre Verdet, copyright Gallimard 1987, English Translation copyright Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, and Harry N Abrams,Inc., New York, 1992. Ref FE 01/01July 08, 1842 Dominique Francois Jean Arago (1786-1853) observed this solar eclipse and attempts that the sun does exist of gas.July 08, 1842 First attempt to photograph a total eclipse was made by the Austrian astronomer Majocci. He failed to record totality, though he did succeed in photographing the partial phase.July 08, 1842 Following anecdote appeared according Dominique Francois Jean Arago (1786-1853) in the Journal of the LowerAlps, July 9, 1842: A poor child of the commune of Sieyes was watching her flock when the eclipse commenced. Entirely ignorant of the event which was approaching, she saw with anxiety the sun darken by degrees, for there was no cloud or vapour visiblewhich might account for the phenomenon. When the light disappeared all at once, the poor child, in the height of her terror, beganto weep, and call out for help. Her tears were still flowing when the sun sent forth his first ray. Reassured by the aspect, the childcrossed her hands, exclaiming in the patois of the province, "O beou Souleou !" (O beautiful Sun !). ref. History of Physical AstronomyJuly 08, 1842 Francis Baily (1774-1844) UK, at an eclipse in Italy, focuses attention on the corona and prominences and identifiesthem as part of the Sun's atmosphere.July 09, 1945 Canadian astronomers, J. F. Heard and P. M. Millman, while in the RCAF, got moderately good photographs of thecorona and flash spectrum during this solar eclipse. They were high above the clouds in Bredenbury, Saskatchewan where groundbased astronomers saw nothing of the eclipse. (HASTRO 24/6/97-Peter Broughton)July 09, 1974 American Satellite OSO 7, Orbiting Solar Observatories, falls back. (ref. DD 7/98)July 09, 1996 With the satellite SOHO, they discover that solar flares causes sun quakes. (ref. DD 7/98)July 10, 0028 This two and a half minute eclipse crossed south western Ireland and Cornwall before the Sun set in France shortlyafterwards. (SW-UK Eclipse's)July 10, 1910 Death of German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle. Besides the discovery of Neptun, he calculated the paralaxof the sun from measurements of Minor Planets. (ref. DD 7/99)July 10, 1972 Chukotka 2509 (1977 NG): Minor planet discovered July 14, 1977 by Nikolaj S. Chernykh at Nauchnyj. Namedfor a National Area of the R.S.F.S.R., situated in the northeastern part of the USSR. The discoverer participated in an expeditionthere to observe the 1972 Total Solar Eclipse (MPC 7472). Ref. VK 6/97July 10, 1983 Minor planet (3222) Liller 1983 NJ. Discovered 1983 July 10 by E. Bowell at Anderson Mesa. Named in honor ofWilliam Lille r, formerly Robert Wheeler Wilson Professor of Applied Astronomy at Harvard University, on the occasion of hissixtieth birthday. A premier observer, he has made substantial contributions through observations of a broad range of astronomicalobjects and phenomena: planetary nebulae, minor planets, comets, novae, variable stars, globular clusters, X-ray sources, quasars,solar eclipses and stellar occultations. Now living in Chile, he has in recent years participated in the PROBLICOM survey and hasdiscovered several novae. During the recent passage of Halley's Comet he was a crucial member of the IHW Island Network. Hehas been a leader in astronomical education and an important supporter of amateur astronomy. His enthusiastic encouragement hasbeen greatly appreciated by his colleagues and students. (M 12015) Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - ISBN 3-540-14814-0 Copyright 1999 by Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergJuly 11, 1732 Birth of French astronomer Joseph Jerome le Francois de Lalande (1732-1807). Calculated the distance to the sunin 1771 and being 154,198 million km. (ref. DD 7/98, Rc 1999)July 11, 1909 Death of Simon Newcomb (1835-1909), American mathematician and astronomer. He used carefully analyzedmeasurements of stellar and planetary positions to compute motions of the sun, moon, planets, and their satellites. Studied the velocity of light and calculated the distance to the sun. March 12, 1835 Birth of Simon Newcomb (1835-1909) in Wallace, Nova(Continued on page 4)

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERPage 4SECalendarScotia, Canada. Simon Newcomb died 11 July 1909 in Washington DC. Ref. Bibliography of Astronomers by Paul Luther,1989.July 11, 1991 The so called Great Eclipse which was visible in Mexico and Hawaii.July 12, 1941 Jones, Barrie W.born 1941. Professor of Astronomy at the The Open University of Milton Keynes. Recording and explanation of shadow bands at solar eclipses. Search for pressure waves in the lower troposphere, generated bysolar eclipses. Ref. Private correspondence BWJ 07/02.July 13, 0158 This was the first total eclipse to have passed over London since 1 AD. It provided for them 1 minute of glory.(SW-UK Eclipse's)July 13, 2018 Next solar eclipse on a Friday the 13 th. The last solar eclipse on a Friday 13 th was in December 1974. Bothare partial solar eclipses. There are 24 solar eclipses on a Friday the 13 th between 0 and 3000. Of which 13 partial, 9 annularand 2 total solar eclipses. The most odd is the one of 13.03.313 which was an annular eclipse.July 14, 1977 Minor planet (2509) Chukotka 1977 NG. Discovered 1977 July 14 by N. S. Chernykh at Nauchnyj. Named fora National Area of the R.S.F.S.R., situated in the northeastern part of the U.S.S.R. The discoverer participated in an expeditionthere to observe the 1972 total solar eclipse. (M 7472) Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - ISBN 3-540-14814-0 - Copyright 1999 by Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergJuly 15, 1975 During the nine-day mission launched July 15, 1975, astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, Vance D. Brand and Donald K. Slayton rendezvoused and docked their Apollo spacecraft with the Soyuz 19 spacecraft with cosmonauts AlekseyLeonov and Valeriy Kubasov onboard.July 16, 0809 "The sun darkened at the beginning of the fifth hour of the day on Tuesday, July 16th, the 29th day of themoon." Refers to a solar eclipse in AD 809. From: The Anglo Saxon Chronicles translated and collated by Anne Savage, CLBPublishing Ltd. Ref FE 01/01July 16, 1330 A short Eclipse at under 1 minute, but yet another for northern Scotland. The Orkney and Shetland Islands areblessed with more Total Eclipses than anywhere else in the UK. Although this Eclipse did not cross these islands, it camepretty close. The Eclipse track traveled into Holland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and setsin Turkey. (SW-UK Eclipse's)July 16, 2186 Closest approach to maximum possible duration of totality with 7 min 29 sec in the Atlantic Ocean. Maximumtheoretical duration is 7 min 31 sec. During the 4th millennium there are only 2 solar eclipses with maximum duration of totality longer than 7 min. In the years 3973 and 3991. There are none in 21st century. Ref. More Mathematical AstronomicalMorsels by Jean Meeus; Willmann-Bell, 2002.July 17, -0187 (188 BC) "Before the new magistrates departed for their provinces, a three-day period of prayer was proclaimed in the name of the College of Decemvirs at all the street-corner shrines because in the daytime at the third hour darkness had covered everything." Probably refers to the solar eclipse of 17 July 188 BC. Livy, Roman. Quoted in EncyclopediaBritannica CD 98.July 17, -0187 (188 BC) "Emperor Hui, 7th year, 5th month, day ting-mao, the last day of the month. The Sun was eclipsed; itwas almost complete. It was in the beginning of (the lunar lodge) Ch'i-hsing" Refers to a partial solar eclipse of 17 July 188BC. Pan Ku Han-shu (AD 58-AD76). Quoted in Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation, by F Richard Stephenson, Ca mbridge University Press, 1997, page 234.July 17, 0334 Firmicus (Sicily) is first to report solar prominences, seen during an annular eclipse.July 17, -0708 (709 BC) "Duke Huan, 3rd year, 7th month, day jen-ch'en, the first day (of the month). The Sun was eclipsedand it was total." Refers to a total solar eclipse of 17 July 709 BC.From: Ch'un-ch'iu, book I (Chinese). Quoted in HistoricalEclipses and Earth's Rotation, by F Richard Stephenson, Cambridge University Press, 1997, page 226.Stephenson says: "This

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERPage 5SECalendaris the earliest direct allusion to a complete obscuration of the Sun in any civilisation. The recorded date, when reduced tothe Julian calendar, agrees exactly with that of a computed solar eclipse." Reference to the same eclipse appears in the Hanshu ('History of the Former Han Dynasty') (Chinese, 1st century AD): ". . . the eclipse threaded centrally through the Sun;above and below it was yellow."July 17, 1905 Birth of Roderick Oliver Redman. On August 31, 1932 G.G. Cillie (UK) and Donald H. Menzel (US) useseclipse spectra to show that the Sun's corona has a higher temperature (faster atomic motion) than the photosphere. Confirmed, with much higher temperature, by Roderick Oliver Redman (1905-1975) during an eclipse in South Africa on October 1, 1940. (ref Rc 1999)July 18, 1860 "At the commencement of the obscuration, the sky was overcast, with heavy masses of cloud in the east, andthere was much reason to fear that the celestial phenomenon would not be at all apparent hereabouts. But a brisk gale ofwind having scattered the clouds, shortly before six o'clock the sun became visible to the eager gaze of thousands, andagain astronomical prediction was verified. The black shadow had eaten its way a considerable distance into the surface ofthe bright orb, and slowly but steadily the darkness appeared to extend itself over that dazzling surface. What a scrutiny thegreat change was attracting from all quarters of the earth! What an array of telescopes were eagerly searching the blue vaultabove during those precious moments!" Refers to a solar eclipse of 18 July 1860, at Upper Fort Garry, Manitoba (outsidethe path of totality). From: William Coldwell and William Buckingham, Nor'Wester. Reprinted, with permission, fromChasing the Shadow, copyright 1994 by Joel K Harris and Richard L Talcott, by permission of Kalmbach Publishing Co.Ref FE 01/01July 18, 1860 "But at the moment of totality, all became silent and dumb. Neither a cry nor a rustling, nor even a whisper(was heard), but everywhere there was anxiety and consternation. To everyone the two minutes of the eclipse were like twohours. I do not exaggerate or imagine any of these details. Several people whom I questioned after the eclipse regarding theduration of totality replied that it had lasted for two hours." Refers to a total solar eclipse in Sudan of 18 July 1860. From:M Bey, Comptes Rendus. Quoted in Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation, by F Richard Stephenson, Cambridge University Press, 1997, page 385.July 18, 1860 First wet plate photographs of an eclipse; they require 1/30 of the exposure time o f a daguerreotype.July 18, 1860 Warren de la Rue (1815-1889), UK and Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), Italy, use photography during a solareclipse in Spain to demonstrate that prominences (and hence at least that region of the corona) are part of the Sun, not lightscattered by the Earth's atmosphere or the edge of the Moon, because the corona looks the same from sides 250 miles apart.July 18, 1898 The authors, Meeus-Grosjean-Vanderleen, started as close as possible with the 20 th century for their CanonOf Solar Eclipses 1898-2510 in 1966. They started with eclipse number 7401 of von Oppplozers' Canon der Finsternisse,which was the solar eclipse of 18 July 1898 and so 600 eclipses could be compared from both Canons.July 19, 0418 First report of a comet discovered during a solar eclipse, seen by the historian Philostorgius in Asia Minor.Many chronicles do mention this observation (12 western, 3 Byzantine). Philostorgius mentions that the sun was eclipsedat the 8 th hour of the day. In his sketch there is a comet. This Total Solar Eclipse was from the Caribbean, Bay of Bengal,north Spain, central Italy, little Asia and ends in the north of India.July 19, 1975 The Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft undocked at 8:02 am EDT. While the spacecraft were in station-keepingmode, the crews photographed them. The Apollo spacecraft served as an occulting disk, blocking the sun from the Soyuzand simulating a Solar Eclipse, the first man-made Eclipse. Leonov and Kubasov photographed the solar corona as theApollo backed away from the Soyuz and toward the sun.July 21, 1979 Minor Planet (4013) Ogiria 1979 OM15. Discovered 1979 Ju ly 21 by N. S. Chernykh at Nauchnyj. Namedin memory of Maiya Borisovna Ogir' (1933-1991), solar physicist and staff member of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory for more than 30 years, known for her research on the active processes on the Sun. (M 22500) Dictionary of MinorPlanet Names - ISBN 3-540-14814-0 - Copyright 1999 by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg(Continued on page 6)

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERPage 6SECalendarJuly 21, 1990 Meteorologist Joe Rao was able to coerce American Trans-Air Airlines to alter the course of one of theirregularly -scheduled flights in order to be in the right position to experience the total phase of the July 22-21, 1990 totalsolar eclipse. The eclipse began on Sunday, July 22, with the path of totality passing over Helsinki, Finland. The shadowpath then moved across northernmost sections of Russia, then crossed the International Date Line, causing the eclipsedate to change to Saturday, July 21. The totality track swept southeast over Alaska's Aleutian Island chain, before reaching its end at a point midway between Honolulu, Hawaii and San Francisco, California. American Trans-Air Flight 403normally flies from Hawaii to San Francisco on Saturday afternoons. A few weeks in advance of the eclipse, Rao informed the airline that by delaying the flight by 41 minutes out of Honolulu, that Flight 403 would likely be in position tocatch the total phase. The airline agreed to make the attempt, allowing most of the 360 persons on board their LockheedL-1011 jet the opportunity to witness totality. Rao, his wife Renate, and two friends, flew out of New York's JFK airportlate on Friday night, July 20 . . . arrived in San Francisco early on Saturday morning for a few hours of sleep, beforeboarding ATA Flight 402 to Hawaii. They were in Honolulu for 45 minutes before turning around and heading back forSan Francisco (encountering the eclipse along the way). After spending the night in San Francisco, they returned to NewYork the next day, having traveled over 11,000 miles in 46 hours just to see 73 seconds of a total eclipse! Ref. Pers.Corr. Joe Rao.July 22, 1784 Astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) was born in Muiden. Son of a government employee.Friedrich W. Bessel, German astronomer and mathematicus determined precession, nutation, aberration and inclinationof the ecliptic. Famous for his Bessel elements for the calculation of Solar Eclipses. (ref. DD 7/98, Rc 1999)July 22, 1990 The Finland-Russia eclipse, which was clouded out for many eclipse chasers.July 22, 2009 Next total solar eclipses with a totality duration longer than 5 minutes are 22 July 2009 (6m40s), 11 July2010 (5m20s) and 2 August 2027 (6m23s). Ref. More Mathematical Astronomical Morsels by Jean Meeus; WillmannBell, 2002.July 22, 2028 Christmas Island will get a total solar eclipse on 22 July 2028 with almost 4 minutes of totality. There willbe a Partial Solar Eclipse on Christmas Day, December 25, 2038 (mag. of 0.845). On December 26, 2019 there is a partial eclipse of magnitude 0.658 on the same island.July 22, 2381 The maximum theoretical length for a British total eclipse is 5.5 minutes. The eclipse of June 16, 885lasted for almost 5 minutes and the same will be true for the Scottish total eclipse of 22 July 2381. This TSE will be thefirst total solar eclipse in Amsterdam since 17 June 1433. Ref WC 7/01 SEMLJuly 23, 0594 The Sun was well up (17 ) at 6:11 am when totality occurred. On a warm summer's morning it must havegot surprisingly cold as totality approached, giving a clue that something unusual was about to happen. At 258 km widethis was an Eclipse with a very wide track and a good duration of over 3 minutes. The Eclipse track traveled into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Russia. (SW-UK Eclipse's)July 24, 1853 Birth of Henri Alexandre Deslandres (1853-1948) in Paris, French physicist and astronomer did spectroscopic research. Designed, independent from Hale but at the same time, the spectra helio graph. (ref. DD 7/98, Rc 1999)July 25, 6337 Is in Santiago de Compostela, a religion place in Spain, the day July 25 on a Sunday, then the year iscalled Ano Santo Compostelano. The next central eclipse visible in Santiago de Compostela will be the annular eclipseof 3 October 2005. For a total solar eclipse the pelgrims have to wait till 4 October 2480. Because this is a total eclipseat sunrise, the next favorite will be 30 October 2665. The last total solar eclipse was 16 March 1485. But an eclipse inSantiago de Compostela and in an Ano Santa Compostelano? On 16 februari 2743 there is an annular eclipse. The sameyear 25 July is on a Sunday which is Ano Santo Compostelano. Maximum is 4 degrees under the horizon. The total solar eclipse of 16 June 1406 was in an Ano Santo Compostelano as well. Between -1000 and 8000 there is only one solareclipse on a Sunday July 25 and visible in Santiago de Compostela: The partial solar eclipse of Sunday 25 July 6337with maximum magnitude of 0.328 at 15h23.July 27, 1801 Birth of Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), British Astronomer and Astronomer Royal fro m 1835 till(Continued on page 7)

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERPage 7SECalendar1881, president of the Royal Society from 1871 till 1873. Calculated distance to the sun and observed transit of Venus,etc. (ref. DD 7/98, Rc 1999). Born in Alnwick, Northumberland. Died in "White House," Greenwich of injuries from afall on 2 January 1892. Ref. The Bibliographical Dictionary of Scientists, edited by David Abbott, 1994.July 28, 0873 "This solar eclipse was observed by Abu al-'Abbas al-Iranshahri at Nishapur early in the morning on Tuesday the 29th of the month of Ramadan in the year 259 of al-Hijrah . . . (date on the Persian calendar) . . . He mentionedthat the Moon's body (i.e. disk) was in the middle of the Sun'd body. The light from the remaining uneclipsed portion ofthe Sun surrounded it (i.e. the Moon). It was clear from this that the Sun's diameter exceeded in view that of the Moon."Refers to an annular eclipse of 28 July AD 873. From: al-Biruni al-Qanun al-Mas'udi (1030). Quoted in HistoricalEclipses and Earth's Rotation, by F Richard Stephenson, Cambridge University Press, 1997, page 467.July 28, 1851 "The observations were tolerably successful. although the full beauty of the corona was not seen at Christiania, owing to the prevalence of thin clouds during the totality. The prominences were clearly visible, especially a largehooked protruberance. This remarkable stream of hydrogen gas, rendered incandescent while passing through the heatedphotosphere of the Sun, attracted the attention of nearly all the observers at the different stations. I succeeded in notingaccurately the mean solar times of the beginning of the eclipse, and of the beginning and end of totality. As at Christianiathe total darkness lasted only a few seconds more than 2-1/2 minutes, I could only examine in a hurried manner the various phenomena visible in the telescope. So absorbed was I during this short interval that when the limb of the Sun reappeared I could scarcely realize the fact that 2-1/2 minutes had elapsed since the commencement of totality. These weretruly exc iting moments, and although I had hastily witnessed most of the phenomena, I felt somewhat disappointed thatmore had not been accomplished. Few can imagine how much I longed for another minute, for what I had witnessedseemed very much like a dream. As a spectacle, those who were not encumbered with telescopic work had the best of it.Several persons in different positions were requested to note the effects of the darkness on the landscape, plants, and animals. I kept my eye devotedly fixed to the eye-piece of the telescope during nearly the whole time of totality. I only removed it in order to obtain a few seconds' glance at the marvellous transformation around me, for the landscape had lostall its natural aspect, being tinted with various shades of colour over the intermixture of land and water. Some of myfriends described the appearance, as the darkness gradually crept onwards, as truly awful." Refers to the total solareclipse of 28 July 1851, as seen from within the northern edge of the path of totality, in Scandinavia. From: Edwin Dunkin, Autobiography, unpublished. Compiled by Peter Hingley, Royal Astronomical Society. Ref FE 01/01July 28, 1851 First American eclipse expedition to Europe when George Phillips Bond (1825 - 1865) led a team to Scandinavia.July 28, 1851 Robert Grant and William Swan (UK) and Karl Ludwig von Lottrow (Austria) determine that prominences are part of the Sun because the Moon is seen to cover and uncover them as it moves in front of the Sun.July 28, 1851 Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892) (UK) is the first to describe the Sun's chromosphere: he calls it thesierra, thinking that he is seeing mountains on the Sun, but he is actually seeing small prominences (spicules) that givethe chromosphere a jagged appearance. Because of its reddish color, Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), in 1868,names this layer of the Sun's atmosphere the chromosphere.July 28, 1851 The first photograph of a total eclipse was taken in 1851 by Berkowski in Konigsbert, East Prussia usingthe 6.25 in Königsberg heliometer and giving an exposure of 24s.July 29, -0430 (431 BC) ". . . the sun assumed the shape of a crescent and became full again, and during the eclipsesome stars became visible." Thucydides (Greek, c460-400 BC).Refers to an annular solar eclipse of 3 August (29 July)431 BC. Ref FE 01/01July 29, -0430 (431 BC) "The same summer, at the beginning of the new lunar month (the only time by the way at whichit appears possible), the Sun was eclipsed after noon. After it had assumed the form of a crescent, and some of the starshad come out, it returned to its natural shape." Refers to an annular solar eclipse of 3 August (29 July) 431 BC. Thucydides (Greek historian, c460-400 BC) History of the Peloponnesian War. Quoted in Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation, by F Richard Stephenson, Cambridge University Press, 1997, page 346, and, in part, in Encyclopaedia Britannica(Continued on page 8)

Volume 8, Issue 7SOLAR ECLIPSE NEWSLETTERSECalendarCD 98.July 29, 1878 Height of search for intra-Mercurial planet Vulcan using eclipses to block the Sun. Several observersclaim sightings, but they are never confirmed. The problem is finally resolved by Albert Einstein (1879-1955) in hisgeneral theory of relativity in 1916.July 29, 1878 Possible observation of comet Encke (Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865)) during the eclipse of 29 July1878 by J.B.Rutherford from Colorado Springs. Besides the comet he also observed Procyon, Regulus, Mercury andMars with the naked e

and last but not least, the annular solar eclipse. Some of them successful, some of them not at all. Many of us are preparing them for the Transit of Venus in 2004. Quite a bit of contributions on this in the Solar Eclipse Newsletter. From no on, for the safety of the contribu-tors, email