WINE QUALITYWine Quality: Tasting and Selection Keith Grainger 2009 Keith Grainger ISBN: 978-1-405-11366-3

Food Industry Briefing SeriesWINE QUALITY: TASTINGAND SELECTIONKeith GraingerA John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication

This edition first published 2009 C 2009 by Keith GraingerBlackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007.Blackwell’s publishing programme has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientific,Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.Registered officeJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex,PO19 8SQ, United KingdomEditorial offices9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, United Kingdom2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300, USAFor details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for informationabout how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this bookplease see our website at right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has beenasserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UKCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of thepublisher.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some contentthat appears in print may not be available in electronic books.Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimedas trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are tradenames, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respectiveowners. The Publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned inthis book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritativeinformation in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on theunderstanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professionalservices. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, theservices of a competent professional should be sought.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataGrainger, Keith.Wine quality : tasting and selection / Keith Grainger.p. cm. — (Food industry briefing series)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-1-4051-1366-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Wine tasting. making–Analysis. I. Title.TP548.5.A5G73 2009641.2 2—dc22Wine and2008030012A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.RSet in 10/13pt Franklin Gothic Book by Aptara Inc., New Delhi, IndiaPrinted in Malaysia by KHL Printing Co Sdn Bhd12009

rContentsSeries Editor’s ForewordPrefaceAcknowledgementsIntroductionChapter 1 Wine Tasting1.1 Wine tasting & laboratory analysis1.2 What makes a good wine taster?1.3 Where and when to taste – suitable conditions1.4 Appropriate equipment1.4.1 Tasting glasses1.4.2 Water1.4.3 Spittoons1.4.4 Tasting sheets1.4.5 Tasting mats1.5 Tasting order1.6 Temperature of wines for tasting1.7 Tasting for specific purposes1.8 Structured tasting technique1.8.1 Appearance1.8.2 Nose1.8.3 Palate1.8.4 Conclusions1.9 The importance of keeping notesChapter 2 Appearance2.1 Clarity2.2 818212122v

rW I N EQ U A L I T Yvi2.3 Colour2.3.1 White wines2.3.2 Rosé wines2.3.3 Red wines2.3.4 Rim/core2.4 Other observations2.4.1 Bubbles2.4.2 Legs2.4.3 DepositsChapter 3 Nose3.1 Condition3.2 Intensity3.3 Development3.3.1 Primary3.3.2 Secondary3.3.3 Tertiary3.4 Aroma characteisticsChapter 4 idityTanninAlcoholBodyFlavour intensityFlavour characteristicsOther observationsLengthChapter 5 Tasting Conclusions5. for qualityReadiness for drinking/potential for ageingPrice/valueIdentification/true to 95051515455575757596060

r5.6 Grading wine – the award of points5.6.1 Grading on a 20-point scale5.6.2 Grading on a 100-point scale5.7 Blind tasting5.7.1 Why taste blind?5.7.2 Blind or sighted?5.7.3 Tasting for quality5.7.4 Practicalities5.7.5 Examination tastingsChapter 6 Wine Faults and 146.15Chloroanisoles and bromoanisolesFermentation in the bottle and bacterial spoilageProtein hazeOxidationExcessive volatile acidityExcessive sulfur minEthyl acetateExcessive acetaldehydeCandida acetaldehydeSmoke taintChapter 7 Quality – Assurances and Guarantees?7.1 Compliance with ‘Quality Wine’ legislationas an assurance of quality?7.1.1 The European Union and third Countries7.1.2 Table Wine and QWpsr7.1.3 The concept of Appellation Contrôlée7.2 Tasting competitions as an assessment ofquality?7.3 Classifications as an official assessmentof 7676767779797980818486C O N T E N T Svii

rW I N EQ U A L I T Yviii7.4 ISO 9001 Certification as an assurance ofquality?7.5 Established brands as a guarantee of quality?7.6 Price as an indication of quality?Chapter 8 Quality – The Natural Factors and aSense of Place8.1 Typicity and regionality8.2 The impact of climate upon quality wineproduction8.3 The role of soils8.4 Terroir8.5 The vintage factor8788919394959697101Chapter 9 Constraints upon Quality Wine Production1059.1 Financial9.1.1 Financial constraints upon the grower9.1.2 Financial constraints upon the winemaker9.2 Skills and diligence9.3 Legal9.4 Environmental105106107109110111Chapter 10 Production of Quality Wines11310.1 Yield10.2 Density of planting10.3 Age of vines10.4 Winter pruning10.5 Stressing the vines10.6 Green harvesting10.7 Harvesting10.7.1 Mechanical harvesting10.7.2 Hand picking10.8 Delivery and processing of fruit10.9 Selection and sorting10.10 Use of pumps/gravity10.11 Control of fermentations10.12 Use of gasses113114115116116117117118119120120121121124

r10.13 Barrels10.14 Selection from vats or barrels10.15 StorageChapter 11 Selection by ket dominancePrice point/marginSelecting for market and customer baseStyles and individualityContinuityThe place of individual wines in the rangeExclusivitySpecificationTechnical analysisAppendixGlossaryBibliographyUseful WebsitesWine ExhibitionsIndexA colour plate section appears between pages 28 and 151155157C O N T E N T Six

rSeries Editor’s ForewordWine is surely a gift of the gods. If mankind had not been meantto enjoy wine, then why would the gods have created Vitis viniferaand its relatives, and why would we have been given the capacityto extract grape juice and exploit yeast in controlled fermentationsto produce this most wonderful of beverages? Wine is an elegantdrink, and more. What may appear to be a simple glass of winecan contain a complexity of aromas, flavours, textures and coloursencapsulating the skills of generations of winemakers developedin many countries and on many continents. Wine is an intrinsicpart of the history of mankind, and the pursuits of viticulture andvinification have helped to shape both cultures and societies. Todeny the value of wine to the cycle of our lives is to reveal prejudiceand ignorance, for good wine, consumed sensibly, has the powerto augment the meal, bring joy to social occasions and enhancethe quality of our lives. Yet though we may drink wine, how many ofus actually taste wine and how many do so knowledgeably?In Grainger’s Wine Quality the author, Keith Grainger, explainshow to taste wine and how to develop knowledge about wine. Heexplains how to go about understanding wine, how to make aninformed and objective assessment of wine and, consequently,how to gain greater pleasure and interest from wine. Grainger’sWine Quality is logically organised. The book explains the differentelements of objective of wine tasting and how to undertake thepractices of assessment in an organised and professional way. Italso describes product faults and their causes as well as givingcomments on factors affecting the quality of wines and issues relating to production constraints, the marketability of wines and themarkets in which wines are found. Here Grainger has distilled – orshould I say, fermented? – many years of practical experience as axi

rW I N EQ U A L I T Yxiiwine educator to those who would know more about wine, as wellas a consultant to the wine industry. The book has been writtenas a companion to Wine Production by Keith Grainger and HazelTattersall (Blackwell Science). Together these publications providethe reader with a quick and easily accessible understanding of howwine is made and how it should be judged.Grainger’s Wine Quality and Grainger and Tattersall’s Wine Production are both from the Blackwell Science Food Industry Briefingseries of books. The series was created to provide the food industry with a resource for use by managers and executives who needto broaden their knowledge without devoting large amounts of timeto study. It was also conceived as a resource for the developmentof staff to increase their expertise. Additionally, the Food Industry Briefing Series should be of benefit to lecturers in the fieldsof food science and technology and their students. Today, food industry professionals, lecturers, students and university librariesare all subject to tight budgetary controls. With this in mind, theFood Industry Briefing Series has been conceived as a source ofhigh-quality texts that fall well below the price threshold of mosttechnical and academic texts.Ralph EarlySeries Editor, Food Industry Briefing SeriesHarper Adams University CollegeJune 2008

rPrefaceWhen, in 1920, Professor George Saintsbury’s Notes on a CellarBook was first published, the 75-year-old author could have had noidea that sharing his opinions of wines he had drunk over more thanhalf a century would be the birth of a new art, and the precursorof a new science, of the assessment of the tastes and quality ofwines. Saintsbury was to become an icon to the oenophile, havingboth a prestigious wine and dining club, and a flagship Californianwinery named in his honour. The clarets of 1888 and 1889 were, toSaintsbury, reminiscent of Browning’s A Pretty Woman and the redwines of the south of France ‘Hugonic in character’. Today’s winecritic is, rightly or wrongly, usually more concerned with matters ofacidity, balance, length and perhaps the awarding of points thanwith allusions to Browning or Hugo. Today, the professional tasteralso strives to be objective in the assessments made, somethingthat Saintsbury would never claim to be.This book aims to provide a concise, structured yet readableunderstanding of the concepts and techniques of tasting, assessing and evaluating wines for their styles and qualities, and of thechallenges in assessing and recognising quality in wines. Also discussed are the faults that can destroy wines at any quality leveland the misconceptions as to what constitutes quality. The bookdoes not examine grape varieties in detail or, other than by way ofexample, the profiles and qualities of the vast array of wines produced in the wine regions of the world. There is already a wealth ofliterature on these topics. Nor do I cover the basics of viticultureand vinification, other than areas that particularly impact on quality.For this topic the reader is referred to Wine Production: Vine to Bottle, by Keith Grainger and Hazel Tattersall (published by BlackwellScience in the Food Industry Briefing Series).xiii

rW I N EQ U A L I T YxivThis book may prove valuable to wine trade students and professionals, sommeliers, restaurateurs, food and beverage staff andmanagers and all true wine lovers. The tasting structure and example tasting terms used herein are generally those of the Systematic Approach to Tasting of the diploma level of the Wine & SpiritEducation Trust. As such, I hope the book may prove valuable tothose studying for, or considering studying for, this qualification.Although the book is written primarily for the reader with limitedscientific knowledge, at times it is necessary to take a more scientific approach, especially when examining the compounds thatgive rise to aromas, flavours and, particularly, taints. The text isalso unashamedly interspersed with the occasional anecdote, forit is not just our personal perceptions but also our experiencesthat shape our interaction with what can be the most exciting ofbeverages.I wish to thank everybody who has given me their time, knowledgeand opinions. I also wish especially to thank Ralph Early, serieseditor for the Food Industry Briefing books, for his input and workin editing the text, Nigel Balmforth and Kate Nuttall of BlackwellPublishers for their support (and patience), Geoff Taylor of Corkwisefor analysis information, Antony Moss for reviewing the, text andmaking valuable suggestions, and finally Hazel Tattersall for herwork in preparing the index. I also wish to particularly thank theWine & Spirit Education Trust for allowing me to use, adapt andextract from the WSET Systematic Approach to Tasting (Diploma).Keith Grainger

rAcknowledgementsFigure 1.1Colour Plate 2.3Colour Plate 2.4Colour Plate 2.7Colour Plate 10.1Colour Plate 10.2All other colour plates and figures:British Standards InstituteCephas/Diana MewesCephas/Diana MewesCephas/Alain ProustRustenberg/Keith PhillipsRustenberg/Keith PhillipsKeith GraingerAcknowledgement is given to Wine & Spirit Education Trust for allowing the use of the WSET Systematic Approach to Tasting (Diploma)xv

rIntroductionHow can wine quality be defined and how can it be assessed?These apparently simple questions pose many more. Wine stylesare not static – in wine regions throughout the world, the winesmade today are different to those of previous generations. Fewwould deny that the quality of inexpensive wine is higher than ever,but the paradoxical question is, are they better wines? And whatof the so-called great wines from illustrious producers? Are theyricher, softer and more voluptuous, or are they less distinctive,less a statement of place, less charming, less exciting even lessenjoyable than the wines of a generation or two ago?Tastes change and wine is, as it always has been, subject tothe vagaries of fashion. In 1982, Master of Wine and Burgundyexpert Anthony Hanson wrote in the first edition of his criticallyacclaimed book Burgundy ‘great Burgundy smells of shit’. If therewere any raised eyebrows at the time, these were only because ofHanson’s choice of language – indeed many Burgundies had a noseof stables, farmyards and the contents thereof. By 1995 Hansonwas finding such a nose objectionable, and laid the finger of blameat microbial activity. We now know that these smells have nothingto do with Pinot Noir (the variety from which pretty much all redBurgundy is made) or the Burgundy terroir, but stem largely froma rogue yeast: Brettanomyces. Today, Brettanomyces is generallyregarded as a fault in wine (see Chapter 6).So something that in 1982 was regarded by an expert taster asa sign of quality is today seen as a fault. We may draw a further example of mature Riesling. Producers in Germany and Alsace havelong lauded the diesel or kerosene nose that these wines can exhibit after several years in the bottle. Many New World producersand wine critics regard such a nose as a flaw, caused by TDNxvii

rW I N EQ U A L I T Yxviii(1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, also known as norisoprenoid). In common with many other wine writers I disagree, findingsuch a nose part of the individual, sensuous character of this mostdistinctive of varieties.There are apparent contradictions in how we assess and definewine quality. One wine can be analysed chemically and microbiologically and be declared technically very good, yet may taste distinctly uninteresting; another wine may show technical weaknessesor even flaws, yet when tasted it may be so full of character andtrue to its origin that it sends a shiver down the spine. And howcan we define what constitutes a truly great wine? In his book,The World’s Greatest Wine Estates, Robert Parker, without doubtthe world’s most influential wine critic, gives a workable definitionof greatness ityabilityabilitytotototoplease both the palate and the intellect’;hold the taster’s interest’;display a singular personality’;reflect the place of origin’.It is interesting that many wine lovers bemoan the ‘Parkerization’of some wines – i.e. the sense of place is negated as producersstrive to produce the style of wine driven by super-ripe fruit thatthey believe will earn them a high Parker rating.The very concept of assessing quality in food or drink is something that does not come easily to many people. To them a qualityproduct is one with a ‘designer’ label, a well-known brand, advertised on television or in glossy magazines and which is in fashion.In other words, something that they are told is good by believablesources. The British education system, as it is now institutionalisedin the United Kingdom, is bound by the straightjacket of the NationalCurriculum and held hostage by the need to meet targets in assessments. Consequently, it completely fails to encourage young peopleto develop the life-enhancing skills of discerning quality. Pupils maybe taught about food and nutrition but leave school unable to distinguish the fine from the mediocre: to the benefit of the many foodbusinesses that make a lot of money from second-rate food products. It is of great concern to many wine producers that so many‘twenty-something’ consumers are not turning on to wine in the way

rthat the previous two generations did, and most of those that doseem unwilling to leave the simplistic world of ‘entry-level’ quaffingliquid.Quality may be regarded as an objective standard of excellence,with an absence of any faults. This leads us to another major issueto challenge tasters: objectivity. Objectivity is generally regarded asseeing something as it really is, uncoloured by personal preferenceor bias. A tasting assessment should be structured so that thetaster perceives a wine to be as it truly is. However, is this achievable? The argument as to whether or not there is such thing asobjectivity has induced growing perplexity during recent decades.Is objectivity the seeing of reality, something actually existing? Oris it simply taking pains to diminish or eliminate bias? Should wedistinguish between ontological objectivity (seeing things as theytruly are, the truth coinciding with reality) and procedural objectivity(using methods designed to eliminate personal judgements, perhaps coloured by feelings or opinions)? The key question is whetherwe can know if our views of reality actually correspond with it, andjust how do we represent our views of reality?In order to try and ensure rigour, validity acceptance and realismof findings, researchers using the methods of the natural sciencesuse procedures that endeavour to eliminate subjectivity, which maybe described as procedurally objective methods to gain an ontologically objective understanding. When tasting wines it is importantthat we use techniques that are procedurally objective but realisethat our assessment is not an ontologically objective one. In otherwords it is a judgement and as such it is fallible.Judgements as to quality are, of course, framework dependent.Frameworks include those appertaining to the taster and to thewine. A taster, however open-minded he or she tries and claims tobe, will work within boundaries established by training, history andculture. A Burgundian winemaker trained at the University of Dijonwho has worked, lived and breathed the terroir-driven wines of theCôte d’Or will, however well travelled and widely experienced, assesses a powerful fruit-driven Chardonnay from Napa Valley very differently to a UC Davis trained American oenologue. A Muscadet deSèvre-et-Maine AC – Sur Lie, however well crafted and showing tipicity de-luxe with classic autolytic character would, by the vast majorityof trained tasters, not even be placed in the same quality leagueI N T R O D U C T I O Nxix

rW I N EQ U A L I T Yxxas a Montrachet Grand Cru AC. Yet both might be wonderfully enjoyable, just as simple cod and chips (which would accompany eitherwine) might please the diner as much as lemon sole prepared by thechef of a Michelin three-star restaurant. And, of course, the moreillustrious the origin and producer of a wine, the higher the price,the greater the expectations of quality, and the deeper the disappointment should it under perform. In other words for both the producer and the consumer, quality is not something that can simplybe bought or that can always be relied upon. Even a subtle changein any of the multifarious variables that constitute the make-up ofa wine will impact, positively or negatively, on taste and quality. Butthis is just one of the factors that make the tasting and assessmentof wines so exciting.

Plate 1Wine glass tilted to assess appearancePlate 2Looking down for an impression of intensityWine Quality: Tasting and Selection Keith Grainger 2009 Keith Grainger ISBN: 978-1-405-11366-3

Plate 3The same wine as Plate 2 viewed tilted to 30 Plate 4The appearance of a young Cabernet Sauvignon

Plate 5Contrasting the colours and rims of young and mature redsPlate 6The fine pearl-like bubbles of a good Champagne

Plate 7Inconsistent bubbles in a charmat method sparkling winePlate 8Wine showing thick, long legs

Plate 9Plate 10Part of the Molina vineyard in Curicó, ChileChablis Grand Cru vineyards of Preuses and VaudésirPlate 11Inner staves inside an empty tank

Plate 12Gravity feed winery at Rustenberg Estate, StellenboschPlate 13 Gravity feed winery, showing press, at Rustenberg Estate,Stellenbosch

rWine TastingThe history of winemaking goes back some 8000 years, whichmeans that the history of wine tasting, at least in a basic way, isjust as old. References to the taste of wine abound in works throughthe centuries. On 10 April 1663, the diarist Samuel Pepys wrotethat he drank at the Royal Oak Tavern ‘a sort of French wine calledHo Bryen, that had a good and most particular taste I ever met with’.Pepys’s note might not have been sufficient for a pass in today’swine trade examinations, but he had the disadvantage, or shouldthat be benefit, of not have been inundated with press releases orthe pronouncements of wine writers, critics and sommeliers. Hetasted the wine, and gave his perceptions of it.1.1 Wine tasting and laboratory analysisThere are two basic ways by which wines may be analysed: byscientific means using laboratory equipment and by the organoleptic method, i.e. tasting. A laboratory analysis can tell us a greatdeal about a wine, including its alcohol by volume, the levelsof free and total sulfur dioxide, total acidity, residual sugar, theamount of dissolved oxygen, and whether the wine contains disastrous spoilage compounds such as 2,4,6-trichloroanisole or 2,4,6tribromoanisole. It is highly desirable that producers carry out acomprehensive laboratory analysis both pre- and post-bottling. Ifanother laboratory undertakes a duplicate analysis, the resultsshould be replicated, allowing for any accepted margins of error.Scientific analysis can also give indications as to the wine’s style,balance, flavours and quality. However, it is only by tasting a wineWine Quality: Tasting and Selection Keith Grainger 2009 Keith Grainger ISBN: 978-1-405-11366-31

rW I N EQ U A L I T Y2that we can determine these completely and accurately. If a teamof trained tasters assess the same wine, they will generally eachreach broadly similar conclusions, although there may be dissention on some aspects, and occasionally out and out dispute.Wine is, of course, a beverage made to be drunk and (hopefully) enjoyed. Low-priced wines are usually, at best, little more thanpleasant, fruity, alcoholic drinks. As we move up the price and quality scale, wines can show remarkable diversity, individuality and imitable characteristics of their origin. Good quality wines excite andstimulate with their palettes of flavours and tones, their structureand complexity. Fine wine can send a shiver down the spine, fascinate, excite, move and maybe even penetrate the very soul of thetaster. No amount of laboratory testing can reveal these qualities.Further, it is only by tasting that the complex intra- and interrelationship between all the components of the technical make-up ofa range of wines and human interaction with these can be trulyestablished. It can be argued that the perceptions of the taster areall that really matter – wine is not made to be tasted by machines,but by people.1.2 What makes a good wine taster?Developing wine-tasting skills is not as difficult as many would imagine. Whilst it is true that some people are born with natural talent(as with any art or craft), without practice and development suchtalent is wasted. People who believe that they will not make goodwine tasters due to a lack of inborn ability should perhaps askthemselves some simple questions: Can I see, smell and tastethe difference between oranges, lemons and grapefruit, or betweenblackcurrants, blackberries and raspberries? If the answer is yes,the door is open. There are a few people, known as anosmics,who have a poor or damaged sense of smell, and obviously theyare unable to become proficient tasters, and a larger number ofpeople who are specific anosmics, i.e. lacking the ability to detectcertain individual aromas. It is also true that some people have onthe tongue a high density of fungiform papillae, which contain thetaste buds, making them particularly sensitive to bitter sensations.

rC H A P T E RIt has been argued by Yale University Professor Linda Bartoshukthat this group of people are ‘supertasters’. Ann Noble’s group atUC Davis has also established that there are no ‘supertasters ingeneral’, but that an individual who is a supertaster with one bitter compound, e.g. naringine, might be a non-taster with another,e.g. 6-N -propylthiouracil or caffeine. It should be noted that supertasters do not necessarily make the best wine tasters, for theintense sensations they perceive from bitterness and astringencyimpacts on other sensations and perceptions of the balance of thewine.With practice and concentration, the senses needed for winetasting can be developed and refined. Memory and organisationalskills also need to be developed: it is not of much use having thesensory skills to distinguish between, say, an inexpensive young,Cabernet Sauvignon from Maule (Chile) and a fine mature Merlotdominated wine from Pomerol (Bordeaux, France) if one cannot organise the characteristics in the brain and remember them. Thusthe making of detailed and structured tasting notes is important– the very act of noting observations sharpens perceptions, andmaintaining a consistent structure enables wines to be assessed,compared and contrasted. However, applying verbal descriptionsto complex and possibly individual aroma and flavour perceptionsposes many challenges. Learning too is important, for the tasterneeds to understand the reasons for the complex aromas andflavours and be able to accurately describe them. In short, thereis no substitute for the widest possible tasting experience, encompassing wines of all types, styles, qualities, regions and countriesof origin.When tasting wines we are using the senses of sight, smell,taste and touch. The sense that requires the most developmentis that of smell. Smells create memory. You can walk into a roomand, in an instant, you are reminded of another time and place –perhaps back in your infants’ school classroom or in grandma’shouse. In the briefest of moments your nose has detected theconstituents, analysed them and passed the information to thebrain which has immediately related them to a point in the memorybank.For most people it is not difficult to develop the sense of smell.We live in a world in which we are conditioned to believe that many13

rW I N EQ U A L I T Y4everyday smells are unpleasant and thus we try to ignore them.Walking in a city centre we may be subjected to a melange of trafficfumes, yesterday’s takeaways and detritus of humankind and aretempted, even programmed by the media and society, to try andignore the onslaught. Smells may be attractive or repulsive, and anattractive smell to one person may not be to another. The smellsof the human body are a key component of attraction, sexual orgeneral, or of rejection. Animal smells in particular are offensive tomany – to say that somebody smells like a dog, horse or mousewould hardly be considered a compliment!A simple way to help develop the sense of smell is to use it.When walking into a room smell it, smell the newly washed laundry, the material of clothes on a shop rail, the hedgerow blossom, even the person standing next to you. And, most importantly,commit these to memory. Expert wine tasters structure and organise a memory bank of smell and taste profiles and thus canrelate current experiences to similar ones they have encountered.Interestingly, research by Castrioto-Scanderberg et al. (2005) using brain monitoring by means of functional magnetic resonanceimaging shows that experienced tasters have additional areas ofthe brain activated during the tasting process, namely the front ofthe amygdala-hippocampal area, activated during the actual tasting and the left side of the same area during the aftertaste (finish)phase.1.3 Where and when to taste – suitableconditionsThe places that wines may be tasted are perhaps as diverse aswines themselves, and even less than technically i

A colour plate section appears between pages 28 and 29. P1: SFK/UKS P2: SFK/UKS QC: SFK/UKS T1: SFK BLBK066-Grainger November 11, 2008 21:28 . has the power to augment the meal, bring joy to social occasions and enhance the quality of our lives. Yet though we may drink wine, how many of