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FIRE PROTECTION & LIFE SAFETY DESIGN MANUALSMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION – OFFICE OF SAFETY,HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. 1CHAPTER 11.11.21.31.41.51.61.71.81.91.101.111.12PURPOSE . 3SCOPE . 3CODES & STANDARDS . 3EQUIPMENT . 4ABBREVIATIONS . 4DEFINITIONS . 5FIRE PROTECTION DESIGN ANALYSIS . 5PLAN REVIEW REQUIREMENTS . 6SEISMIC CRITERIA . 6ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS . 6FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATION . 6PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGN . 7CHAPTER 22.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.82.9WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION . 18PRIVATE SYSTEMS . 18SUPPLY DURATION AND MAIN SIZE CRITERIA. 18DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM . 18INDEPENDENT SOURCES . 18HYDRANTS . 18CHAPTER 55.1MEANS OF EGRESS . 15STANDARDS . 15BASIC REQUIREMENTS . 15MINIMUM WIDTH . 15EXIT ILLUMINATION . 15EXIT MARKING . 15ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS . 16CHAPTER 44.14.24.34.44.5BUILDING FEATURES. 10TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION . 10USE GROUPS AND OCCUPANCIES . 10HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITS . 10SITE CONSIDERATIONS . 10FIRE AND SMOKE BARRIERS . 10INTERIOR FINISHES AND DECORATIVE MATERIALS . 11ROOF COVERINGS AND ROOF DECKS . 12INSULATION . 12SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS . 13CHAPTER 33.13.23.33.43.53.6FIRE PROTECTION DESIGN OVERVIEW . 3FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS . 21GENERAL . 21Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design Manual9/19/2014

5.25.35.45.55.65.7SPRINKLER SYSTEMS . 21STANDPIPE SYSTEMS . 22CLEAN AGENT EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS . 22COOKING EQUIPMENT SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS . 23PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS . 23FIRE PUMPS . 23CHAPTER 66.16.26.36.4PURPOSE . 25GENERAL REQUIREMENTS . 25SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. 25PUBLIC ADDRESS . 25CHAPTER 77.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.87.97.107.11SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS . 27COLLECTIONS STORAGE FACILITIES GENERAL . 27INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FACILITIES . 30UTILITY ROOMS, SHOP AREAS, AND INCIDENTAL USE SPACES . 30TRASH DUMPSTERS . 31HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS . 31LABORATORIES . 31ATRIUMS AND OTHER VERTICAL OPENINGS . 31FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS . 31MARINE OPERATIONS . 31ANIMAL HOUSING FACILITIES . 32COMPACT STORAGE UNITS (MOBILE SHELVING). 32CHAPTER 88.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.88.98.108.118.128.13FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS . 25EXHIBIT FABRICATION GUIDE. 36GENERAL . 36EXHIBIT DESIGN DRAWINGS . 36EXITS . 38FIRE-RATED CONSTRUCTION. 40MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION . 40FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS . 42AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS . 42EMERGENCY LIGHTING . 43PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS . 43ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (OTHER THAN FIRE ALARM) . 44AUDIO VISUAL EQUIPMENT . 44INSTALLATION OF EXHIBITS . 45FINAL ACCEPTANCE AND APPROVAL . 46APPENDIX A - FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR EXHIBIT CONSTRUCTION . 48APPENDIX B - GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS . 53APPENDIX C – FIRE PROTECTION COMMISSIONING STANDARDS . 55APPENDIX D - SUMMARY OF ENCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMON USEAREAS . 57APPENDIX E – COMPACT STORAGE UNITS (MOBILE SHELVING) DESIGNSUPPLEMENT . 59Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design Manual9/19/2014

INTRODUCTIONThe unique nature and significance of the Smithsonian Institution’s buildings, collections and operationsmandate a higher level of fire protection and life safety than the minimum standards established by thebuilding and fire codes. This Design Manual builds upon current codes, utilizing the latest recommendedindustry practices and specialized fire protection engineering experience to establish an appropriate levelof fire protection and life safety for all Smithsonian facilities and the collections, occupants andoperations within. This Design Manual provides for the life safety of Smithsonian staff and visitorsthrough measures which control fire growth and ensure adequate means for egress are available for safeevacuation. This Design Manual also strives to achieve a level of protection from fire and products ofcombustion that is commensurate with the value of the property and operations being safeguarded.Special attention is given to the protection of collections against fire, smoke, gas, as well as the potentialdeleterious effects of fire protection systems.The fire safety solutions outlined in this Design Manual provide a balanced approach to achieving thestated goals. That is, they rely on a number of fire safety systems to achieve a total prevention andprotection scheme, while taking into account the need for building functionality and design flexibility.Particular emphasis is on fire safety systems that are simple, reliable, long-lasting, maintenance-friendly,and cost-effective. While active fire systems are key to the success of the overall protection scheme,passive measures also play a significant role by minimizing the impact of a potential fire on occupants,collections, and facility operations.This manual is divided into 8 chapters. The first six chapters describe common fire protection and lifesafety requirements to be applied to all projects. Chapter 7 describes requirements associated with specialoccupancies, such as collection storage, laboratories and animal housing facilities. The final chapter andAppendix A describe exhibit fabrication requirements. This manual established and mandates the use ofSI standard fire protection specifications and commissioning standards, which are listed in Appendices Band C, respectively.Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 19/19/2014

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CHAPTER 11.11.21.3FIRE PROTECTION DESIGN OVERVIEWPURPOSEA.This Fire Protection Design Manual (Manual) identifies the fire protection and life safetydesign criteria for new facility designs, upgrades, and modifications to existing facilitiesand spaces.B.This Design Manual provides requirements for protecting all SI occupants and forlimiting SI property loss from fire.SCOPEA.This Design Manual applies to all designs, upgrades, and modifications to SI-owned,occupied, leased, or operated facilities.B.These requirements apply to all SI-managed facilities, operations, programs, andactivities.C.The Director, OSHEM, is the “Authority Having Jurisdiction” for the Smithsonian, asdefined and used in the National Fire Codes, and is the designated fire code official (alsoreferred to as the “Fire Marshal”) as defined and used in the International Fire Code.CODES & STANDARDSA.Minimum Standard: It is SI OSHEM’s position that building and fire codes establish theminimum standard of performance for Smithsonian Institution buildings and facilities.The codes address issues of life safety and property protection; however, they do notadequately address continuity of operations in the form of protection for the collections.B.This Design Manual establishes the minimum requirements for SI design projects. The SIDesign Manager shall confer with the OSHEM Fire Protection Engineer on the applicablecodes and standards and additional requirements.C.The most restrictive requirement in this Design Manual and applicable codes andstandards shall be followed.D.Original Design Codes: The fire protection related codes and standards in effect whenfacility design commences (code of record) remain in effect for the life of the facilityunless a significant hazard that endangers the building occupants or the public isidentified or unless the building is modified. In these cases, the facility is upgraded to thecurrent requirements of the applicable code or standard. Note: If the code of recordcannot readily be determined, OSHEM shall stipulate the code to be utilized.E.Current Codes: When upgrades or modifications are made, the current edition of the codeapplies to the upgrade or modification. When substantial upgrades or modifications aremade on fire protection systems, the entire system is upgraded to the current code orstandard.F.SI standard Fire Protection Specifications included in Appendix B are to be used in newprojects.G.SI standard Fire Protection commissioning standards in Appendix C are to be used in newprojects.H.References:1.Smithsonian Institution Directive (SD) 419 and SI Safety Manual.Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 39/19/2014

2.International Code Council (ICC) Codes, latest edition:i.International Building Code (IBC)ii. International Fire Code (IFC)iii. International Mechanical Code (IMC)iv. International Plumbing Code (IPC)1.41.53.National Fire Codes, National Fire Protection Association, Latest Version, andtheir appendices.4.FM Global Loss Prevention Data SheetsEQUIPMENTA.All fire protection designs shall use equipment that has been tested and listed or approvedby a nationally recognized testing laboratory (e.g., UL) for its intended use.B.OSHEM may issue written approval for substitute, equivalent items if no listed orapproved item can be procured because the equipment has never been tested for fireprotection use.C.All equipment components specified in designs shall be compatible with existingequipment and installed as required by the applicable National Fire ProtectionAssociation (NFPA) codes and standards and manufacturer’s recommendations.D.System reliability, longevity, and serviceability shall be included as criteria in specifyingfire protection and life safety system components and in design decisions.E.Written acceptance tests and/or operating procedures shall be prepared and executed forall new system installations and/or modifications to verify that the systems perform asrequired. Acceptance test procedures shall be required as a separate submittal from thecontractor based on the specified system performance and the specific equipmentinstalled. Any deficiencies noted during the tests shall be documented and tracked untilresolved or corrected. Operating procedures shall be required as part of the As-Builtdocumentation submittals.F.When site-specific guides or design specifications exist, they shall be included in all fireprotection design packages as applicable.ABBREVIATIONSA.ASTM: American Society for Testing and MaterialsB.FM: FM Global (formerly Factory Mutual)C.ICC: International Code Council (Refer to 1.3 G for additional abbreviations)D.LSC: Life Safety Code, NFPA 101E.MCFL: Maximum Credible Fire LossF.MPFL: Maximum Possible Fire LossG.NFPA: National Fire Protection AssociationH.NRTL: Nationally Recognized Testing LaboratoryI.OSHEM: Office of Safety, Health and Environmental ManagementJ.SI: Smithsonian InstitutionSmithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 49/19/2014

K.1.61.7UL: Underwriters LaboratoriesDEFINITIONSA.Fire Protection - A broad term that encompasses all aspects of fire and life safety,including building construction and fixed building fire protection features, firesuppression and detection systems, fire water systems, emergency process safetycontrols, emergency fire fighting operations (fire department), Fire ProtectionEngineering (FPE), and fire prevention. Fire protection is concerned with preventing orminimizing the direct and indirect consequences of fire on people, property, andprograms. By extension, fire protection also includes aspects of the following perils asthey relate to Fire Protection: explosion, natural phenomenon, and smoke and waterdamage from fire.B.Fire Protection Systems - Any system designed and installed to detect, control, orextinguish a fire; to limit fire damage; to alert occupants and/or the fire department that afire has occurred; or to otherwise enhance life safety or property protection.C.Life Safety Systems: Any system designed and installed to alert occupants to a firecondition, provide sufficient capacity and a protected path for egress, provide structuralstability, and provide passive defense against the spread of fire and its products. Theseinclude, but are not limited to, means of egress components, emergency lighting, exitsignage, fire barriers, and structural fire protection.D.Maximum credible fire loss (MCFL): The damage to property and/or disruption tooperations that would be expected from a fire, assuming that (1) all installed fireprotection systems function as designed; and (2) the effect of emergency response isomitted except for post-fire actions such as salvage work, shutting down water systems,and restoring operations.E.Maximum possible fire loss (MPFL): The value of property (excluding land) and cost ofoperations disruption within a fire area, unless a fire hazards analysis demonstrates alesser (or greater) loss potential. This assumes the failure of both automatic firesuppression systems and manual fire fighting efforts.F.Redundant fire protection: Fire protection measures implemented to mitigate the effectsof fires or related perils in the event of a partial or total failure of the primary fireprotection measures (e.g., two independent fire suppression systems to protect a high riskfacility).G.Performance-Based Design: An engineering approach to design elements of a buildingbased on agreed-upon performance goals and objectives, engineering analysis andquantitative assessment of alternatives against the design goals and objectives usingaccepted engineering tools, methodologies and performance criteria.FIRE PROTECTION DESIGN ANALYSISA.A fire protection design analysis is required for all designs and must address the fireprotection requirements of the project as required by this Design Manual. Summarize thefire protection design analysis and submit it with the Concept submission. The fireprotection design analysis shall be separate from other disciplines. Where applicable,discuss the following minimum fire protection provisions (include required vs. provided):1.Building code analysis (i.e., type of construction, height and area limitations, andbuilding separation or exposure protection)2.Classification of occupancy,Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 59/19/2014

1.81.104.Means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (occupantloads, exit capacities, etc.)5.Analysis of automatic sprinkler systems and other suppression systems andprotected areas, including hydraulic analysis of required water demand,6.Water supplies, water distribution, location of fire hydrants,7.Smoke control methods and smoke control systems,8.Fire alarm system (the type of alarm system and location of the fire alarmequipment),9.Fire detection system (the type of detection system and location of detectors),10.Standpipe systems and fire extinguishers,11.Interior finish ratings,12.Connection to and description of fire alarm supervising system.13.Identify the various occupancies and hazardous areas associated with the facility,14.Coordination with security and antiterrorism requirements,15.Fire Department access.All new projects, renovations, modifications, including associated scopes of work, shallbe submitted to OSHEM for review and approval.SEISMIC CRITERIAA.Seismic design for buildings and systems shall be in accordance with the IBC.B.Fire protection systems shall be designed and installed to withstand seismic events inaccordance with the applicable NFPA standards, except as required by other criteria forsafety class equipment.ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTSA.1.11Requirements for fire-rated walls, fire-rated doors, fire dampers with their fireresistive ratings, smoke compartmentation, smoke barriersPLAN REVIEW REQUIREMENTSA.1.93.All SI buildings and facilities shall comply with the requirements in SD 215,Accessibility For People With Disabilities, established by the SI Accessibility Office.FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATIONA.Coordinate with the facility prior to and concurrent with design.B.Separate all occupied areas from demolition, renovation, or construction activities bytemporary smoke-tight construction partitions of gypsum board or other approved noncombustible or limited-combustible material in accordance with the requirements ofNFPA 241. Barrier design shall be detailed in project documents.Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 69/19/2014

C.Partitions shall be full height, extending through suspended ceilings to the floor slab orroof deck above and shall be one-hour fire rated, unless sprinklers are installed and areoperational on both sides of the temporary partition whereupon the partition may bepermitted to terminate at the ceiling in accordance with NFPA 241.Note: This requirement is due to the inherently greater potential for fire or hazardousmaterials incidents associated with the combustibles and operations of demolition/construction. This risk is made worse by the likelihood of compromised fire protectionsystems and fire/smoke resistant construction. This does not obviate the need to provideother protective measures to contain dust and debris as specified under other SIrequirements.1.12D.Sprinklers are considered to be operational when they are installed in accordance withNFPA 13 (spacing, protection, distance from the ceiling, etc.) and there is a sufficientautomatic water supply.E.Phase construction as necessary to ensure that exits are not obstructed or reduced inwidth. If exits must be obstructed during construction, provide alternate exit routes duringeach phase of construction and identify the alternate routes on the construction drawings.F.Minimize or avoid disruptions to fire alarm and sprinkler systems. Delineate phasing ofconstruction to ensure that installations of new systems are expedited, and wherepossible, maintain existing systems in service until the replacement system is operational.If fire protection systems are to be disrupted, follow the SI fire system impairmentprocedures to ensure procedures are incorporated to maintain equivalent levels of fireprotection and provide formal notification to the facility while systems are down via thefire protection system impairment process (See SI Safety Manual, Chapter 36).G.Contractors shall furnish their own fire extinguishers when an area is vacated forrenovations. SI-owned fire extinguishers shall be removed from the vacated area andreturned (or replaced with new) prior to re-occupation by SIH.Hot work operations involving open flames or smoke producing processes shall beconducted in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 14, “Hot Work Managementand Permit System”, of the SI Safety Manual.PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGNA.It is permissible and usually necessary/desirable that performance-based fire safetydesign methods be applied to the renovation, restoration, remodeling or modernization ofexisting facilities to address the evaluation of a subsystem, system, or complete buildingwhen it is not possible to meet the provided prescriptive requirements for newconstruction.B.Performance-based fire safety design methods must not be used to eliminate the retainedprescriptive requirements as described in the Performance-Based chapter of NFPA 101.C.Performance-based approaches to meeting the goals and objectives outlined in NFPA909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resource Properties – Museums, Libraries, andPlaces of Worship shall be permitted subject to the approval of OSHEM.D.Performance-based approaches to meeting the goals and objectives outlined in NFPA150, Standard for Fire Protection and Life Safety for Animal Housing Facilities shall bepermitted subject to the approval of OSHEM.E.All performance-based design approaches shall be in accordance with the guidelinesdelineated in NFPA 909 or NFPA 150, as applicable, and shall follow the Society of FireSmithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 79/19/2014

Protection Engineers Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection.F.Required design fire scenarios, performance criteria for acceptance, and input parametersfor fire models used in the performance-based analysis shall be approved in advance byOSHEM, SI curatorial staff, and other stakeholders.Smithsonian InstitutionOffice of Safety, Health, and Environmental ManagementRevision 2014.0Fire Protection & Life Safety Design ManualPage 89/19/2014

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CHAPTER 22.12.22.32.42.5BUILDING FEATURESTYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONA.New structures shall be constructed from noncombustible or fire resistive construction,Type I or II as defined in the IBC, unless otherwise approved by OSHEM.B.For non-separated mixed-use buildings the construction type shall be the most restrictivetype based on the use groups and building height and area in accordance with the IBC.C.Alterations, renovations, and additions to existing buildings shall match the existingbuilding construction type, unless the height and area limitations of the IBC would beexceeded. In such case, the building separation requirements of the IBC shall befollowed.D.Wood used for walls, platforms, blocking, furring, and similar applications shall be fireretardant, pressure impregnated. Fire retardant coatings of intumescent paint or other fireretardant chemicals are not acceptable in lieu of fire retardant treatment.USE GROUPS AND OCCUPANCIESA.Use groups and occupancies shall be in accordance with the IBC.B.The Life Safety Code chapters that correspond to the IBC use group shall be used todetermine means of egress requirements and other special occupancy requirements.HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITSA.Height and area limitations of new buildings shall be in accordance with the IBC.B.Where existing buildings undergo additions, the combined area of the existing buildingand the new addition shall comply with the limits established in the IBC. Where the areaof the addition would cause the building to exceed the height and/or area limits of theIBC,

facility design commences (code of record) remain in effect for the life of the facility unless a significant hazard that endangers the building occupants or the public is identified or unless the building is modified. In these cases, the facility is upgraded to the