Stanford UniversityPrecourt Institute for EnergyThe Precourt Institute for Energyat StanfordLynn Orr, ZX Shen, Sally Benson, Stacey Bent, Jim Sweeney, FrankWolak, Larry Goulder

Energy Research and Teaching at Stanford Current Faculty– 198 faculty– 22 departments– 13 independent labs /programs Stanford History– Early 1970s – Institute forEnergy Studies (IES)– 1976 – Energy ModelingForum– 1985 – IES dissolved– 2002 – GCEP– 2006 – Precourt Institutefor Energy Efficiency– 2009 – Precourt Institutefor EnergyBusiness (1%)Engineering (30%)Earth Sciences (14%)Humanities & Sciences (Science)(16%)Humanities & Sciences (SocialScience) (4%)Law (2%)Medicine (1%)Independent Labs/Programs (32%)Distribution includes duplication caused by facultywith multiple affiliations (253 affiliations listed)Many departments have longstanding andvery active energy research efforts2

PIE Overall Goals Lead the world in academic energy research Provide people and ideas that can transform the energylandscape; broaden and link the community of students,faculty, and researchers working on energy across thecampus Work on a wide spectrum of energy resources,technologies for energy conversions, time scales forapplication, energy efficiency, markets, regulatorystructures, and economics Strengthen the energy educational effort at Stanford Make what we do more visible to the world outside ofStanford Provide a single point of contact for those who want tofind out what we do3

Precourt Institute for Energyat Stanford UniversityPrecourt InstituteInstitute CenterImproving energyefficiency nowGlobalClimate andEnergyProjectTomKatCenter forSustainableEnergyTechnology to reduce Renewables, energyGHG emissionsstorage, gridmanagementStanfordEnvironment &Energy PolicyAnalysis CenterFeasible, cost effective,politically realistic policyoptionsStanford/SLACInstitute forMaterials andEnergy SciencesProgram onEnergy andSustainableDevelopmentBasic science of materials,interfacesPolitical economy of energymarkets, GHG reduction4

Additional Energy Programs and Centers Energy Modeling Forum Center for Advanced Molecular Photovoltaics Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient EnergyConversion SIEPR Energy, Natural Resources and the EnvironmentProgram Hoover Task Force on Energy Policy Center for Sustainable Energy through Catalysis Atmosphere/Energy Program, Civil and EnvironmentalEngineering Department Thermosciences and Flow Physics and ComputationDivisions, Mechanical Engineering Department Energy Materials theme in the Department of MaterialsScience and Engineering

Additional Energy Programs and Centers Solar and nanostructured materials research in theChemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, MaterialsScience, Applied Physics Multiple industrial affiliates programs on geothermal, oilrecovery, carbon capture and storage in the Departmentof Energy Resources Engineering Undergraduate majors related to energy in ME, ChE,Mat. Sci & Eng., ERE, Management Sci. & Eng., Civil &Env. Eng., Geol & Env. Sci., Geophysics. Earth Systems, Energy Science and Technology Track(undergrad) Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Environment andResources (IPER) 135 courses in many departments/programs

Elements New faculty appointments – 5 new billets leveraged byjoint appointments with schools, departments Research support through proposal competitions:––––PIE:PEEC:TKC:GCEP: 1.8 M 0.9 M 1.2 M 66 M Annual expenditures by PIE elements: 38 M New Energy and Environment Industrial AffiliatesProgram Outreach: Energy seminar, GCEP Symposium, PEECworkshops, TKC Grid Initiative Workshops, 7

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences(SIMES)SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryMaterials Science DivisionZ.-X. ShenDirector, SIMESChief Scientist, SLACEnergy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 2010

SLAC Organizational ChartEnergy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 2010

SLAC PS Directorate OrganizationAdvisory CommitteesALD AdvisoryCouncilPhoton Science DirectorateKeith Hodgson, ALDPSD AdministrationMaterials SciencesDivision (SIMES)Z.X. ShenImmediateFY11 FY11Chemical SciencesDivisionPhil BucksbaumALD Advisory Council– Includes:Division DirectorsInstitute/Center Directorsand Deputy DirectorsSenior Admin ry Committees– External forSIMESPULSECatalysis Center(PS Level Committee;Reports to SLAC Director)DOE Briefing 7/27/09Page 10Energy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 2010

Division of Materials Science (FWP) Supplemental support by Stanford University throughfaculty salary and graduate student fellowships SLAC is making strategic investments (LDRD).

Mission and Vision Our mission is to address grand challenges in thescience of energy-related materials. We createknowledge, develop leaders, and seek solutions. Our vision is to become a renowned center ofexcellence in the science of energy-relatedmaterials.Energy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 201012

Strategic GoalsSIMES is motivated by solving key questions which will lead todramatic improvements for society : Room temperature superconductivity Solar Power cheaper than Coal Electrochemical energy storage density more than double thecurrent Lithium ion battery Efficient grid, and low power consumption electronicsEnergy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 201013

Major Science GoalsSIMES focuses on science questions that will significantlycontribute to the strategic goals: Why do quantum electronic materials have amazingemergent properties? What are the “step out” pathways to convert photons intoenergy, and to store energy chemically? How can we design and synthesize materials, both physicallyand bio-inspired, that exhibit these amazing quantum andenergy transformative properties? How can we best measure, probe, and simulate the ultrafastphotonic and electronic processes that drive all of the above?Energy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 201014

Team Approach to Science ties?Build / TestApplicationsConvertphotons intoenergy, storeenergy?Synthesizephysically- andbio-inspiredmaterials?Ultrafastphotonic ngSynthesis

Opportunity to GrowSLAC is at historical juncture that offers anopportunity for a fully fledged materials sciencedivision to serve the DOE mission through thefollowing ecosystem of research and developmentDiscoveryTestDesignBuildEnergy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 2010

Program Vision (2013-2015)Energy Programs at Stanford, Oct.5th, 201017


Global Climate and Energy ProjectMission Research on low-greenhouse gas emission energy supply Focus on fundamental and pre-commercial research Applications in the 10-50 years timeframeStrategy Research projects with potential for significant impact on reducinggreenhouse gas emissions Look for potential breakthroughs for new conversion options High risk / high reward Work at Stanford and at other institutions around the worldSponsors

GCEP Research Portfolio, September, 2010Over 100MAllocated toResearch

GCEP STUDENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT Support for graduate research (400 students to date) GCEP Symposium: Sept 28-29, 2010 GCEP Student Forum Topical Workshops 2011 Energy Summer School

TomKat Center for Sustainable EnergyThe mission of the TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy is to harnessthe skills and creativity of Stanford University’s leading science,technology, and policy experts to transform the world’s energysystems for a sustainable future.This problem is inherently interdisciplinary because the renewable resources are intermittent with varying timescales they require a different transmission and distribution system than thecurrent infrastructure they involve technical issues of information management and systemcontrol they are influenced by markets that determine which fraction of energycomes from renewables they impact the environment.Stanford University

Primary Energy Flow by Source and Sector, 2009Quadrillion BTUTogetherthese twosectorsmake up2/3 of USenergydemandU.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2009 diagram.htmlStanford University

TomKat Center for Sustainable EnergyElectricityTransportationGeneration and ConversionSolar, hydro, biofuels, fuel cells, photocatalysts,and geothermal.Transmission and DistributionNetworking and complex systems, informationtechnology, and security.StorageBoth large-scale and portable storage.Land and Water:Including biofuels, impact of large scale wind andsolar farms. It is strongly dependent on socialscience, law, policy, and environmental research.Stanford University

TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy Promote evaluation, analysis, and research in the areas ofgeneration and conversion, transmission and distribution, storage, andland and water. Focus on the science and engineering of energy conversion systems forproduction, storage and usesystems level architecture and management of grids under deeppenetration of intermittent renewablesthe social, economic, and policy issues that will be required for atransition to significant use of renewablesStanford University

TomKat Center for Sustainable EnergyYear 1Focus: Sustainable Power GridSustainable grid architectures have the potential to provide benefits such as reduction of peak demand energy efficiency and conservation incorporation of generation from renewable sources decreased greenhouse gas emissions reduced cost of electricity providing real time information to utilities and consumers.Stanford University

Precourt Energy Efficiency Center(Née: Precourt Institute for EnergyEfficiency)James Sweeneyhttp://peec.stanford.edu31

Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Established October 2006 Initial funding, from Jay Precourt:– operating cost, building; faculty endowment (now with PIE) Subsequent Funding: EPA, ARPA–E, The Energy Foundation,Richard and Rhona Goldman Fund Mission– Improve opportunities for and implementation of energyefficient technologies, systems, and practices.– Focus on use of energy, especially economically efficientreductions in energy use Operations– Grants to faculty/student teams throughout Stanford– Conferences (Silicon Valley Energy Summit; Behavior,Energy, and Climate Change)– Internal Research32

Decreased Energy iencyIncreased Energy Use33

Decreased Energy UseInefficient Energy SavingWasteEnergy onomically Efficient EnergyIntensification3434

Decreased Energy UseHalt SUV SalesGasolineRationingOverly StrictBuildingStandardsLED GeneralLighting(Now)Plug-InHybrids(Now)LED anceEfficiencyStandardsHybrid GasElectric Vehicles“Smart” onGasoline PriceControlsReformed CAFEStandardsOld appliancereplacementEnergy CostLabelingEnterpriseMgmnt SoftwareEfficient AC-DCConvertersSmart Metersand FeedbackProgram Thermostat,Lights, Tire pressure,Driving gLED: TrafficLights, orescentPenetrationInternet GrowthSome Rail RapidTransit SystemsEnergy Audits(and followup)High Definition TVPigouvianEnergy TaxPersonalComputerPenetrationAirline DeregulationAccessible ficiencyIncreasedcommercialspaceEnhanced TravelInfrastructure35

PEEC-Funded Research ingSystemsBehaviorPolicyLargest EmphasisSome Emphasis

Research on Energy and EnvironmentalMarkets and Policy at PESDFrank A.WolakDirector, Program on Energy andSustainable Development (PESD)andDepartment of EconomicsStanford UniversityStanford, CA

What is PESD? Research on production and consumptionof energy and its impact on theenvironment from a multi-disciplinaryperspective– Economics, Political Science, Law, and Business All energy and environmental challengeshave a significant public policy component– Economic incentives, political constraints, legalframework, regulatory processes, and financiallyviable business models all constrain the set of feasiblesolutions– PESD is unique among energy and environmentalresearch centers in academia in studying these issues

It’s Not Just About Technology Technology is an important part of energysolutions, but there are many examples wheretechnology exists but cannot be implemented (orimplemented at least cost) because of theseconstraints Examples of technologically feasible solutionsthat are hindered by regulatory and politicalconstraints include:– carbon pricing– transmission expansions to support least costrenewable energy deployment,– dynamic pricing of electricity to final consumers– carbon capture and sequestration at scale

PESD Research Climate policy—Cap and Trade, RPS, LCFS Transmission expansion policies to support wholesalemarkets and greater renewable energy penetration– Supported by TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy) Active participation of final consumers in wholesaleelectricity markets– Experimental and behavioral modeling of impact of dynamicpricing programs and information provision programs National Oil Companies in the world oil market Natural gas industry: market design, environmentalconcerns, and the potential for unconventional gas World coal market Access to energy for low-income households in developingcountries– Business models for cookstove deployment in India

Research Methods Quantitative modeling of energy and environmentalinteractions– Model of global natural gas market and coal marketinteractions– Market performance analysis in wholesale electricity andnatural gas markets Systematic case study research– Small/medium scale Commercial cookstove distribution in India– Large scale multi-country Political Economy of Power Sector Reform (completed)Geopolitics of Natural Gas (completed)National Oil CompaniesWorld Coal MarketsElectricity Transmission Planning, Expansion, and Pricing

Collaborations on Campus Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies– Parent organization– Support for low-income energy studies Precourt Institute for Energy / TomKat Center– Support for study of grid integration of renewables Law School– PESD faculty teach a course on regulatory policy in lawschool Focus on energy and infrastructure industries Business School– PESD faculty teach course in GSB on “BusinessModels for Sustainable Energy” during winter quarter42

Outreach/Education Annual research conference Transfer best available academic research to industry and policymakers Sep 7th 2010: “Climate Policy Instruments for Real World”––––––Mechanisms for Setting a Price for CarbonEngaging Developing World in Climate MitigationThe Role of Renewable Energy in Climate MitigationReducing Greenhouse Gases from the Transportation SectorManaging Intermittency in Electricity SectorAdaptation as a Solution to Climate Change Two discussants from industry, regulatory agency or generalpolicymaking community for each academic presenter Conference videos and presentation materials available at

Outreach/Education PESD supports graduate student research on energyand environmental issues– Subsidy trap in access to low-quality electricity bylow-income households in developing countries– Quantifying the magnitude of learning-by-doing inthe construction of wind generation units in the US– Use of improved biomass stoves in India (openingfor PhD student researcher) Stanford courses– Law school– GSB– Economics

Direct Policy Impact PESD faculty participate in public policy makingprocess in the US and around the world, including:– Electricity Frank Wolak is Chair of California Independent SystemOperator (ISO) Market Surveillance Committee Market design and energy industry regulatory oversight innumerous countries around the world – current projects inColombia, Chile, and Philippines– Carbon markets PESD testimony to UN/World Bank on CDM– National Oil Companies Discussions with policymakers, regulators, and NOC officialsaround the world– General energy and environmental policy PESD faculty have testified numerous times to US Senate andHouse of Representatives on Energy and Environmental Issues

Broader Policy Impact Communicating PESD research resultsthrough popular press– Wall Street Journal, New York Times,National Public Radio interviews– PESD researchers contribute op-eds inpopular press and research summaries toindustry publications– Frequent presenters at industry conferences Platt’s, EEI, NARUC

For more information:

Stanford Environmental and Energy Policy Analysis Center(SEEPAC)Some policy areas: Coordinating state and federal climate-policy efforts

Stanford Environmental and Energy Policy Analysis Center(SEEPAC)Some policy areas: Coordinating state and federal climate-policy efforts Assessing existing carbon offset policies (including theClean Development Mechanism) and identifying ways toimprove them Providing incentives for the design of recyclable electronicproducts Reforming the Endangered Species Act

Focus on Policy AnalysisEmphasis on formulating policies that are cost-effective equitable address / overcome political constraints“Economics Plus” invokes economists, legal scholars, political scientists,ethicists forms bridges with engineers and natural scientists to gainrelevant scientific information and ask the importantquestionsOutreach Component: involve representatives fromgovernment, business, and NGOsCommunicate findings through website, policy briefs, workingpapers

A Sustainable Energy SystemEnergy is the lifeblood ofmodern ionalSecurityProtectiveEnvironmentSecure

Stanford/SLAC Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences Program on Energy and Sustainable Development. Precourt Institute for Energy. Precourt Institute for Energy. Improving energy efficiency now Technology to reduce GHG emissions Renewables, energy storage, grid management Political econ