GENDER MAINSTREAMINGTraining ManualUSAID Zambia Community HIV Prevention Project (USAID Z-CHPP)December 2017

Pact is a promise of a better tomorrow for all those who are poor and marginalized. Working in partnershipto develop local solutions that enable people to own their own future, Pact helps people and communitiesbuild their own capacity to generate income, improve access to quality health services, and gain lastingbenefit from the sustainable use of the natural resources around them. At work in more than 30 countries,Pact is building local promise with an integrated, adaptive approach that is shaping the future ofinternational development. Visit us at 2017.Disclaimer:This guideline is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United StatesAgency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief(PEPFAR). The contents of this guide are the sole responsibility of Pact and Plan International and do notnecessarily reflect the views of USAID, PEPFAR, or the United States Government.Recommended citation:Zambia Community HIV Prevention Project (Z-CHPP). 2017. Gender Mainstreaming Training Manual.Lusaka, Zambia and Washington, DC, USA: Pact.Contact:Phesheya VilakaziProgram ManagerPact1828 L Street NW, Suite 300Washington, DC [email protected] ThoyaChief of PartyPact ZambiaPlot 35186, Block A, Alick Nkhata Road,Lusaka, Zambia 260 (211) 254 089/[email protected]

Table of ContentsTable of Contents . iiOverview of the USAID Zambia Community HIV Prevention Project (USAID Z-CHPP) . 1Background to the Training Guide . 2Facilitation Skills. 3Overview of Training Modules . 8This training guide is organized into seven modules: . 8How to Use the Training Guide . Error! Bookmark not defined.Module 1: Introduction . Error! Bookmark not defined.Module 2: Gender Terminology and Concepts . Error! Bookmark not defined.Trainer Tips for Module 2 . 17Module 3: The Social Construction of Gender . Error! Bookmark not defined.Trainer Tips for Module 3 . 26Module 4: Gender and HIV Linkages . Error! Bookmark not defined.Module 5: Sexual and Gender-Based Violence . Error! Bookmark not defined.Module 6: Gender Analysis Frameworks and Tools . Error! Bookmark not defined.Module 7: Action Planning and Commitments . Error! Bookmark not defined.Annexes . Error! Bookmark not defined.Handout 1: Z-CHPP Gender Mainstreaming Training Guide . 1Handout 2: Gender-Related Terminology . 2Handout 3: Gender Concepts . 6Handout 4: Gender and HIV . 9Handout 5: Violence and HIV . 14Handout 6: The Story of Stellah and Banji – Case Study . 18Handout 7: Examples of SGBV . 19Handout 8: Five Domains of Gender Analysis Matrix . 20Handout 9: Action Plan for Gender Mainstreaming . 21Handout 10: Gender Mainstreaming Training Evaluation . 22ii

Overview of the USAID Zambia Community HIV PreventionProject (USAID Z-CHPP)The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/President’s Emergency Plan forAIDS Relief (PEPFAR)-funded Zambia Community HIV Prevention Project (Z-CHPP) is a five-yearcooperative agreement led by Pact to accelerate progress towards Zambia’s goal of reducing newHIV infections. The project supports Zambia to reach the United Nations Program on HIV (UNAIDS)2020 goal of having 90% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status, 90% of those whoknow their HIV positive status receiving sustained anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of those onART achieving viral suppression.To accomplish its goal, Z-CHPP will increase the adoption of high-impact HIV services and protectivebehaviors among at-risk populations using evidence-based and locally owned solutions. Z-CHPP hasfour specific objectives:1. Key determinants of risky behavior mitigated among priority populations;2. Increase in completed referrals from community programs to high impact services;3. Actions adopted by communities to reduce young women’s vulnerability to HIV,unintended pregnancy, and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV); and4. Strengthened capacity of local stakeholders to plan, monitor, evaluate, and ensure thequality of prevention interventions.Z-CHPP maximizes the impact of USAID resources by focusing where the greatest gains can beachieved: in high-prevalence districts, especially those that are densely populated; targetingpopulations at high risk of infection or infecting others; and tailoring approaches to differentsegments of the population. Activities are implemented directly by Pact and its core internationalpartner, Plan, as well as by local partners through sub-grants. This approach leverages existingrelationships at the community level by engaging and supporting traditional and religious leaders,community-based service providers, and the decentralized government structures.Z-CHPP implements activities in 25 priority districts across Lusaka, Central, Copperbelt, Western,North Western, and Southern provinces. Within each district, Z-CHPP aims to achieve a highsaturation of interventions, focusing first on rapid scale-up of HIV testing services (HTS) and reachingPLHIV who are outside of the treatment cascade, then expanding the coverage and scope of activitieswith a comprehensive package of interventions to reach priority high-risk populations, specifically: Adolescent girls and boys (ages 10-19 years);Young women and men (ages 20-24 years);PLHIV;Sero-discordant couples; andOther priority populations, including male sexual partners of adolescent girls and youngwomen (AGYW), cane cutters, miners, fish traders, long-distance truck drivers, and othermigrant workers.1

Background to the Training GuideThis publication has been prepared as a guide for facilitating a gender mainstreaming workshopfor Z-CHPP partners and their various project cadres working at the community level. The trainingmanual serves as a resource for both experienced gender experts as well as new professionalsjust beginning their work in gender mainstreaming. The content is appropriate for all Z-CHPPvolunteers: prevention volunteers, mentors, connectors, district coordinators, communitytheater members, change agents, etc.Broadly, the training is designed to1. Equip participants with information on how socially constructed gender norms affect thedaily lives of women and men;2. Create space for participants to identify and address the harmful impact of gender norms onfueling the spread of HIV; and3. Support participants with the knowledge and skills needed to mainstream gender into theirrespective program activities.2

Facilitation SkillsTHE WORKSHOP TEAMA workshop requires more than one person to implement effectively, and the facilitation teamshould be present throughout the entire workshop so that transitioning from one module to thenext are smooth and effective. A successful workshop is a team effort, and everyone’s role iscritical: Lead Facilitator: Has overall responsibility for everything that happens during the workshopsessions— ensuring that objectives are met, participants are engaged, and training runssmoothly. S/he clearly delegates roles and responsibilities to co-facilitators and invites andprepares guest speakers.Co-Facilitator(s): Supports the lead facilitator to deliver workshop material.Lead Logistician: Has overall responsibility for the smooth operation of the workshop—before, during and after. Duties may include arranging and liaising with the workshop venue;organizing accommodations, transportation, per diem, reimbursements, tea breaks andmeals; purchasing supplies; and coordinating during emergency situations.Support Logistician: Supports the lead logistician, including photocopying, note taking,monitoring participants’ requests, setting up the training room, etc.TRAINING METHODOLOGYThe Gender Mainstreaming manual was written based on the following principles: This training fills an immediate need—the USAID Z-CHPP project team is charged withcascading gender mainstreaming training to all program volunteers.Sessions balance the importance of delivering technical content with the benefits ofparticipatory learning.Learning is two-way—participants and facilitators learn from each other through groupactivities.Time is allowed for discussion, reflection, and feedback.A mutually respectful environment is necessary between facilitator and participants.A safe atmosphere and comfortable environment should be provided for optimallearning.To promote maximum participation, the training room should be set up for participants to sit insmall groups of five- seven people; often referred to as a “table group” in this manual. This canbe done with round or square tables—or no tables at all. This training could be conducted usinga room where participants sit in small circles on the floor if necessary. Whether chairs and tablesare used or not, a classroom style or theater set-up is not recommended for participatory trainingworkshops.3

To enhance learning and limit boredom a range of training methodologies are used. Thisworkshop is highly participatory and the use of PowerPoint presentations is not advised: Mini-Lectures: Information presented by the facilitator or a guest speaker.Case Study: Table groups apply new learning to a “real life” example.Role-play: Two or more people enact scenarios in drama format. Role-plays are alwaysfully debriefed so that learning can be extracted afterwards.Small group work and discussion: Participants share experiences and ideas, jointlydevelop tools or solve a problem together. Small groups should not exceed seven people.Voting: Participants state their opinion about a topic and then discuss their ideas with thegroup.IMPORTANT FACILITATOR ROLESIt is the responsibility of the facilitators to present each session’s background material andactivities as clearly as possible. Skills used to enhance communication include the following:Non-Verbal Communication Maintain eye contact with everyone in the group when speaking. Try not to favor certainparticipants or certain areas of the room.Move around the room without distracting the group. Avoid pacing. Always stand whereeveryone can see you.Use positive non-verbal body language (e.g., nodding and smiling).Determine whether it is best to sit or stand. Typically, it is better to stand in front of the groupwhen training and facilitating, particularly when introducing content, giving instructions for atask, brainstorming, etc. However, if participants are working in small groups and/or sensitivetopics are being discussed, sometimes sitting with the participants creates the air of greatertrust and intimacy.Dress and act professionally at all times.Facilitators are different than teachers or lecturers. It is not the job of a facilitator to knowevery answer to every question. Rather, it is the job of the facilitator to make everyone feelwelcome to share their opinions, to encourage wide participation, and to create a positivelearning environment for everyone present.The best facilitators are humble facilitators.Verbal CommunicationQuestioning Techniques Ask open-ended questions that encourage responses. If a participant answers with a simple“yes” or “no” then follow up: tell me more about that, how did that make you feel, or whathappened that led you to that decision?The facilitator does not have to answer every question. When a participant asks a question,the facilitator can turn the question to the group: what do others think about this issue?4

If the facilitator is not sure of something a participant has said, try paraphrasing: so, in otherwords or if I understand you correctly, you are saying Is that right? And then allow time tocorrect you if necessary.Speaking Style Tone is important. Never sound harsh, mean, directive or judgmental.Always be respectful in an honest, natural way.Speak slowly and clearly.Avoid using slang.Discussion-Management Skills Help the group set norms at the beginning of the workshop. Such things as “show respect,everyone participates, mobile phones on mute, take risks” should be included as norms.Share personal experiences to build a bond with participants.Be sure participants talk more than facilitators. Direct questions to the group to avoiddominating the conversation.Encourage all participants to speak and participate. Encourage quiet people withoutembarrassing them. Gently tell more talkative participants to give others a turn.Be aware of underlying tensions and brewing arguments between/among participants. Workto remain a respectful atmosphere. Participants are welcome to disagree, as long as theyremain calm and respectful of each other.Reinforce statements by sharing relevant personal experiences: that reminds me of a pastworkshop when .Summarize discussions. Be sure that everyone understands the concept before movingforward. Encourage those that have lingering questions to ask for assistance during breaks.Time Management Maintain control at all times. If participants are excited about an issue or a discussion, it isfine to let the discussion continue for another 10 minutes, but try not to interfere too muchwith the timing of subsequent sessions.Remember that the facilitator is responsible for delivering the objectives in the allotted time.Never blame the participants if you are running late and never tell the participants that youhave to cut something out of the workshop due to time. Never say such things as we spenttoo much time on Session 5 so now we don't have time for Session 6!If two - three participants are in a debate or focused on a concept that others clearlyunderstand, suggest they continue the conversation after the workshop or during the break,and gently bring everyone back to the topic at hand.If you find yourself running late, do not panic! This happens all the time to experiencedfacilitators. Participants take their cues from the facilitator—if you are nervous, they will benervous. If you are relaxed and convey the sense that the sessions are on target and on time,the participants will also be relaxed. Just keep the session moving along as best you can.5

During the break, discuss with the organizing team what and where activities or material canbe adjusted.Similarly, if you are running ahead of time, do not panic! You can take longer for lunch, endearly or continue as planned. This way if one session goes long in the future, you have extratime.Content DeliverySetting the Learning Climate Read the training design and review all materials and activities several times to become fullyfamiliar and comfortable with the content.Prepare and organize all materials needed for each session (handouts, flipcharts, etc.) aheadof time, and keep them close at hand during the sessions. It is important to appear organizedat all times.Set up the room and your materials at least 20 minutes before the workshop begins eachmorning. This way you can greet participants as they arrive and be prepared should any lastminute problems arise.Start on time and establish the facilitator’s role by calling the group together.Anticipate questions and be prepared with answers.Presenting Objectives Gently transition from one session to the next, making a link between the two. For example,now that we know how HIV can be transmitted, we are going to look at how HIV impacts thebody if transmission occurs.Tell participants what they will do during each activity in order to achieve the session’sobjectives.It is always a good idea to write workshop and session objectives on flipcharts and hang themin the training room for everyone to refer to during the training.Reflecting on Material Presented Allow enough time for participants to absorb new material. Do not move too quickly.Encourage participants to share their reactions to new material; encourage them to sharepast experiences relevant to the new material.Ensure that participants receive feedback from both the facilitators and other participants.Ask participants to identify key points that emerged during the day.Help participants draw general conclusions from the training.Applying Material to Real Life Encourage participants to discuss how new information and skills will be helpful in their ownproject activities.Help participants anticipate challenges that they might experience in the community andbrainstorm ways to overcome these challenges.6

Discuss what other information is needed to enable participants to successful achieve theirproject responsibilities.The Training Team Clarify everyone’s roles and responsibilities at the beginning of the workshop. What is theresponsibility of the lead facilitator? Co-facilitator(s)? You need to work together toensure no task is forgotten, and no task is duplicated.Meet with the team at the end of every day to debrief and see if changes need to bemade.Pay attention to logistics (meals, accommodation, per diem, transportation, etc.) Poorlogistics can ruin a workshop and take attention away from important technical topics.Handle any disagreements within the training team quickly. Participants can quickly senseif the team has a conflict and it always has a negative effect on the training. Rememberthat the #1 priority of the workshop is participant learning. By focusing on participants,hopefully all internal conflicts can be solved quickly.7

Overview of Training ModulesThis training guide is organized into seven modules:ThemeTime AllottedModule 1Introduction1.5 HoursModule 2Gender and Development Concepts2.5 HoursModule 3The Life Cycle of Gender Norms2 HoursModule 4Gender and HIV Linkages1.5 HoursModule 5Gender-Based Violence3 HoursModule 6Five-Domains of Gender AnalysisMatrixOption 1: 1 hourAction Planning and CommentsAs Needed (1-4 Hours)Module 7Option 2: 3.5 HoursThis training program can be delivered in two and a half days. Delivering training uninterrupted,on consecutive days, is strongly recommended in order to allow participants to return home andbegin implementing their gender action plans in a timely manner. The guide assumesapproximately six hours of content will be delivered on days one and two, and the third (final)day of training will end after lunch. This guide does not include suggested break times; however,in the next section there is a sample agenda to help guide first-time facilitators.If time or resources do not allow for three consecutive days of training, training can occur acrossa longer time period, such as three Fridays in a row. Note that if presented in this style, organizersmay want to add extra time at the beginning of each session to review key concepts fromprevious sessions. Organizers may also want to add time for an overall review on the final day toensure participants have retained all information.8

How to Use the Training GuideEach module includes the following components:Title: The main theme or topic of the module.Learning Objectives: What the participants are expected to learn or be able to do aftercompleting the module.Time: Approximate time needed to deliver the module; facilitators may adjust as necessary.Session Overview: Brief summary of the content that the module includes.Materials and Preparations: Materials needed for the module as well as tasks for the facilitatorto complete before the session begins to ensure that the training runs smoothly. Requiredhandouts and flipcharts appear under this heading. This section can be treated as a checklist toensure facilitator(s) are ready for the module. This section assumes organizers will familiarizethemselves with the material and designate roles and responsibilities for the facilitation teamand does not list these tasks explicitly for each module.Note: In the training guide annex there are nine handouts in total. If the facilitation team wouldlike to include other handouts for the participants, they are welcome to do so.Methodology: Rationale for the methodology used in the module and tips on conducting thesession most effectively.Activity Instructions: Step-by-step process for conducting each training activity. Whenappropriate, this section also presents technical content to be shared during interactive activities,such as small group work.Trainer Tips: This section presents technical content to enrich discussions or include in a minilecture. Regardless of the content included in the Trainer Tips, facilitators should always feel freeto expand and enrich content as needed. Not all modules will have trainer tips.9

Sample AgendaDay 1Day 2Day 308:30 – 10:00Module 108:30 – 09:00Recap08:30 – 09:00Recap10:00 – 10:15Break09:00 – 10:30Module 409:00 – 10:00Module 7 *10:15 – 12:45Module 210:30 – 10:45Break10:30 – 10:45Break12:45 – 13:45Lunch10:45 – 12:45Module 510:45 – 12:45Module 713:45 – 16:00Module 312:45 – 13:45Lunch12:45 – 13:0016:00Closing13:45 – 14:45Module 513:00 – 14:00Closing & FinalEvaluationLunch14:45 – 15:45Module 6 orDay 2 ReviewClosing15:45*Note: If the facilitation team has decided to conduct Option 2 of Module 6, you need to adjustthe Day 3 schedule to accommodate the additional material. This means that Module 7, ActionPlanning, will continue after lunch.10

Module 1: IntroductionModule 1: IntroductionObjectives: By the end of this session, participants will be able to: Articulate the groups’ collective expectations for the training.Time: 1.5 hoursSession Overview: OpeningParticipant IntroductionsWorkshop objectives and agendaParticipant expectationsWorkshop norms/ground rulesMaterials and Preparations: Materials: Flipcharts and felt marker pensOptional: Schedule a guest speaker, if desired. Share clear expectations with that personabout what to say and how long to speak (up to 10 minutes). Although not critical, manypeople choose to invite a senior member of staff to deliver opening remarks. If you knowof someone inspiring or someone who can speak to the project’s success, inviting themto speak at the outset of the Module 1 could provide added motivation.Prepare a flipchart:Participant Introductions1. Find someone in the room who you do not know/do not know well2. Interview each other (5 minutes each):o What is your name?o What is your role in Z-CHPP? What district do you work in?o What is your biggest professional achievement?o What do you expect to get out of this training?o What is the thing you love most about working in an HIV program? Prepare a flipchart:Norms/Ground RulesNote: In order to save time, the facilitator may list some basic ground rules on the flipchart inadvance and ask participants to expand the list.11

Make copies of Handout 1: Workshop ObjectivesOptional: Prepare a flipchart listing the Workshop Objectives.Methodology: There are many advantages to conducting an interactive introduction. First, aparticipatory approach encourages participation from everyone right from the beginning of theworkshop. Secondly, it allows even the most introverted participants to get to know at least oneother person in the room. An interactive introduction is also a good method for practical reasons:because people tend to talk more about themselves than they do others, when participants areasked to introduce their partner to the large group, they tend to take less time to do so than ifthey were introducing themselves, so this portion of the training moves forward in a timelymanner.Activity Instructions:1. Welcome your group to the workshop and thank them for participating. Acknowledge thatadults have many responsibilities in life, such as juggling work and family obligations, and youappreciate the fact that they are making time for this workshop. Also, note that someparticipants may be away from home and/or missing other important activities to be at theworkshop.2. Introduce yourself and other key staff for the workshop: facilitators, logistic support, etc.3. If you have invited a guest speaker, invite her/him to make their opening remarks (this shouldnot take more than 10 minutes).4. Introduce the Participant Introductions activity. Show the flipchart, Participant Introductions.Explain that participants are going to work in pairs to interview each other and then eachperson will introduce his/her partner to the large group. Ask everyone to find someone in the room who they either do not know or who they donot know well. Review the interview questions on the flipchart. Each person has five minutes tointerview his/her partner and may ask additional and/or follow-up questions as they like. Allow 10 minutes for pairs to exchange information and respond to the questions on theflipchart.5. When participants are ready, explain that they will come to the front of the room by pairsand introduce each other to the large group. Ask for one pair to stand and introduce eachother, using the questions listed on the flipchart. Move on to the next pair and continue untileveryone has been introduced to the group.6. Next, distribute Handout 1: Workshop Objectives and review the objectives with theparticipants. If you have also listed the objectives on a flipchart, post it for the duration of theworkshop so that participants and facilitators can easily refer to it as needed.12

7. Ask if participants have any questions or need clarification about the objectives or if there areany objectives not listed that they expected to see. This discussion can prevent frustrationamong participants later on. It also ensures common understanding of the workshopobjectives.A complete list of training objectives follows:Module By the end of this workshop participants will be able to:Objective 11Articulate the group’s collective expectations for the training.Objective 22Define gender-related terms.Objective 32Explain various stereotypes related to gender roles and how theycan be limiting to men and harmful to women.Objective 42Objective 53Objective 63Objective 74Understand key development approaches/concepts that aim toaddress these gender stereotypes.Explain their own perceptions and assumptions related tomasculine and feminine attributes.Identify how gender norms and stereotypes can be harmful forgirls and women and limiting for boys and men throughout thelife cycle.Describe the linkages between gender and HIV.Objective 85Define sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).Objective 95Understand how gender stereotypes can perpetuate SGBV.Objective 105Explain the linkages between SGBV and the spread of HIV.Objective 116Understand how to conduct a gender analysis using the PEPFARFive-Dimensions Gender Analysis Framework.Objective 127Develop a gender mainstreaming action plan for their Z- CHPPactivities.8. Review the workshop agenda with the group. Explain that times are not shown to allowflexibility with timing of sessions. Share the approximate timing of morning and afternoontea breaks and the lunch break.9. Show the flipchart, Norms/Ground Rules that you prepared in advance and ask participantsto add to the list. Be certain to include such norms as keep mobiles silent, respect each other’sopinion, speak through the chair, no mini meetings, etc. Post the flipchart where it is visiblefor the duration of the workshop.10. Thank participants and transition to Module 2.13

Module 2: Gender and Development ConceptsModule 2: Gender Terminology and ConceptsObjectives: by the end of this session, participants will be able to:1. Define various gender-related terms;2. Explain various gender stereotypes and how they can be limiting to men and harmful towomen; and3. Understand key development approaches and concepts that aim to address these genderstereotypes.Time: 2.5 hoursSession Overview: Define gender-related terminology (sex, sex roles, gender, gender roles, gender stereotypes,gender norms).Identify potentially harmful practices that stem from gender stereotypes.Define the following key concepts: Equality vs. Equity, Gender Relations, Women inDevelopment (WID), Gender and Development (GAD), Practical Gender Needs vs. StrategicGender Needs, and Women’s Empowerment.Materials and Preparations: Materials: Flipcharts and felt marker pens.Ensure that at least one facilitator for this se

Gender Mainstreaming Training Manual. Lusaka, Zambia and Washington, DC, USA: Pact. Contact: Phesheya Vilakazi Program Manager Pact 1828 L Street NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036 202-466-5666 . Be sure that everyone understands the concept before moving forward. Encourage those that have