1. The ABCs of Plumbihg.Water MetersMaster ValvesShutoffvalves .5Water Pressure .5Frozen Pipes6Preventing Frozen Pipes .U7Water Hammers .8Leaks .10Leaky Supply Tubing .10Hot Water-Leaks from ValvesLow Pressure .High Pressure .Faucets11122. Preventive MaintenanceAerators .19Clothes Washers .20Dishwashers21Hot Water Demand Recirculation Systems . 2 2PTessure Regulators .Refrigerators .Reverse Osmosis Units .24Toilets: Tune-up Tips .26Types of Toilets26Toilet Parts .27Toilet Troubleshooting .33Water Heaters .Water SoftenersWater Treatment Units42. 4445

\3. Resources’ GuidedBooks. 47Website InformationDo-It-Yourself Information . 47Energy Information .47Plumbing Information . .48Plumbing Codes and Standards .48Toilet Information . .48

Funny, It Didn’t Look BrokenIWater MetersI“Meter, meter wherefore art thou?”Your water meter keeps track of how much water yourhousehold uses. The meter is usually located alongthe sidewalk, in front of your home, inside a concretebox with a concrete cover marked “WATER METER.” .In some homes the water meter is located in thebasement. It may be a bit dark inside th4meter box,so bring a flashlight along!01811171110The two commonmeter typesMeters measure water either in cubic feet or gallons.One cubic foot equals 7.48 gallons. For example, ifyour meter says you used 41 cubic feet in a day, youwould multiply 41 by 7.48 to find out that over 306gallons were used that day. Utilities with meters bill bythe “unit,” normally, such units are measured as 100cubic feet (748 gallons) or alternatively, 1,000 gallons.You can check for leaks on individually meteredresidences by using your meter. Make certain that nowater is being used on the property. Then open thecap of your water meter. Note the location of the dialtest hand. Don’t run water for 30 minutes. If the dialhas moved, you’ve got a leak. Read on to determinethe possible cause.Mast e r Va lvesA master water supply valve controls the water supplycoming into your home. Every home has a mastervalve that is most likely located near the water meteror where the water supply pipe enters your home.

Once you have found the master valve, paint or label itso it is easy to locate. Let everyone in the home knowwhere to find the valve in case of an emergency. Makesure the master valve is accessible; if a pipe is brokenand water is gushing out, you don't want to be climbing over a pile of boxes to be able to shut off the valve!'To shut off the water supply to your home, slowly turnthe handle counter-clockwise.To turn your water backon, just reverse the above steps. Be certain to cover themeter box when you are finished. It's a good idea toplace a few drops of oil around the handle, once a yearor so, to prevent the valve from sticking or corroding.iShutoff Valves - aka" Angle Stops"Most modern homes also have shutoff valves for thelines to individual fixtures. Shutoffs are under sinks onboth hot and cold supply lines; just inside the housefrom an outdoor faucet; beneath a toilet tank; wherehoses lead to a clothes washer; at the pipe leading intoa water heater; or just upstream from bathtub faucets.Check these valves annually to ensure they are notstuck in place or corroded. If other fixtures have waterand dparticular one does not, it is most likely theshutoff valve just upstream, which may be wholly orpartially turned off If no water is coming from a hotwater faucet and the angle stop is on, the inlet or outletvalve on the water heater is probably turned off.Water PressureEven your pipes can get stressed!Water should enter the house at about 45 to 60pounds per square inch (psi).You can check your waterpressure with a water pressure gauge. The gauge screwsto a hose bibb. Water pressure over 60 psi can causea strain on your plumbing fixtures or pipes and evencause bursts in the water line.The ABCs ofPlumbing 5

.Possible causes of low or no water pressure:0Bad diverter valve for a spray nozzle0'Clogged water filter attached to a faucetClogged strainers just inside hose connectionsClogged showerheadFrozen or freezing pipesFaucet aerators often clog after work has been done onsupply pipes because repair work often looSens rustinside the pipes. If you suspect a build up of sedimentin a supply pipe, turn off the water supply, remove theangle stop and peer down the supply pipe. If the pipeis clogged, clear it with a snake. Reattach the anglestop. Turn on the 'water supply and, with a bucket tocatch water, flush out the pipes before reattaching thevalve to the supply tube.Frozen PipesBlocked or restricted water flow is the first indicationof a problem. If you don't act quickly your pipes willburst as the water expands. At the first sign of a blockage, open the faucet. Finding the blockage is critical.Trace the supply pipe to where it runs throughexterior walls or other unheated parts of ybur house,such as the basement or crawl space.To melt the ice,use hot water, a heat gun, hair dryer or heating pad.It is far better to adopt the slower and more conservative procedure 'of melting ice by the use of a blowdryer or heat gun.Shield flammable materials from the heat. Whileapplying heat, leave the faucet open so water can drain.Once the ice melts and the pipes cool, prevent themfrom refreezing by jacketing them with foam insulation. Wrap all pipes that pass through unheated spaces.Pipes buried outdoors should run about 12 inches .below the frost line and should be wrapped with foaminsulation extending below frost line.If you expect a freeze, leave exposed taps dripping toprevent frozen pipes.I16 TheABCs offlumbinq

Preventing Frozen PipesWater pipes that are exposed to freezing temperatures ordrafts should be covered with insulation. When pipesare laid underground they should be below the frostline to prevent freezing. Small water pipes vtifl freezequicker than waste or sewer pipes.If there is plumbing in the garage, do not leave thegarage door open during severely cold weather. The coldand draft can freeze water lines in minutes. Pipes locatedin unheated basements or garages should be insulatedwith a commercial covering.Before the cold freezing weather sets in, disconnect allgarden hoses outside your home; otherwise the hoseand hose bib may freeze and be damaged. This is especially important with anti-freeze hydrants. If tbe hose isdisconnected, the anti-freeze faucet can properly drain,and this will prevent freezing.I4If your home is going to be unattended for a longperiod of time during cold weather and the heatingsystem is turned off, follow the following precations:Shut off the water supply at the master valve.BeginniDg with fixtures on thetop floor, open allfaucets and leave them open. When water stopsrunning from these faucets, open the cap on themain shutoff valve and drain the remaining waterinto a pail or tub.Remember to close the cap after the faucets haverud dry. Otherwise the house water supply will flowfrom this valve and flood the basement.Remove all water in the traps under sinks, toilets,bathtubs, and lavatories by opening the clean outplugs at the bottom of traps and draining them intoa pail. If no plugs are provided, use a force pump orother method to siphon the water out.Sponge all the water out of the toilet bowl.Clean out all water in the flush tank.Fill all traps with a non-freezing solution such asmineral oil, windshield washmg fluid or RV typeanti-freeze.The ABCs ofPlumbing 7

0Drain all hot water tanks. Most tanks are equippedwith a vented tube at the top, which lets air inand allows the water to drain out the faucet atthe bottom.0Make sure all horizontal pipes drain properly. Airpressure will get rid of trapped water in thesepipes, but occasionally the piping may have to bedisconnected and drained. To be safe, have yourplumber check your entire plumbing system.0If your house is heated by hot water or steam,drain the heating pipes and boiler before leaving.0Burners and pilots should be completely out andthe main water supply turned off.0Drain off the water from the boiler by openingthe draw-off valve at the lowest point in thesystem. Open the water supply valve to the boilerso no water will be trapped above it.0If you have a hot water system, begin with thehighest radiators and open the air valve on eachas fast as the water lowers. Every radiator valvemust be opened on a 1 -inch pipe system torelease candensation.Water HammersEver hear a slamming or banging noise in your, waterpipes when someone shuts off a faucet?That soundis called a water hammer. It is caused by the suddenchange of water flow, with resulting pressure surges,which makes pipes vibrate.i8 TheABCs ofPlumbing1Over time, recurring water hammers can loosen themounting brackets that attach the pipes to the studsand joists in your home, leading to more movementand risk of leakage in joints and fittings. It can evencause a poorly soldered joint or fitting to completelybreak! To minimize water hammers, secure pipes toprevent @ovement and reduce sudden pressurevariations.Various devices are available that reducethe abrupt changes in water pressure.

leaks:through an .openingpressure 60 Ibs. 't,.Leaks: drops60 drops per minute 192 gallons per month90 drops per minute 310gallons per mbnth120 drops per minute 429 gallons per month2,190 gallons per month3,290 gallons per monthLeaks: smooth streams1,095 gallons per monthwTheABCs ofPlumbinq 9

LeaksALeaks should be fixed immediately since they can,quickly develop into a serious break. Temporaryrepairs are only temporary, and wrapping the pipeusually fails. If you find a fixture that is leaking, turnoff the shutoff valve for that device. Then locate theleak. Try to tighten any fittings that leak. A quarter orhalf turn with a wrench might do the trick. Be carefulnot to over-tighten fittings. Another possible,causeis that the pipes are undersized and the water velocityis too high.I leaky Supply TubingWhen the line, or tubing, that supplies water to afaucet or toilet leaks, it’s best to go ahead and replacethe tubing.Note: Make sure to get the right size fittings for each end ofthe tubing. The difference between one size/typeand another is subtle. Take your old supply tube/fittings with you and ask a clerk to select a properlength replacement with compatible fittings.Be prepared to replace the shutoff valve as well as thetubing. Old valves that no one has turned for yearsmay spring a leak when suddenly turned. First, you’llhave to shut off the main valve to ,your house. Thenuse a wrench or pliers to unscrew the old valve fromthe nipple in the wall. Place a bucket under the pipeand have someone turn the water on briefly to flushrust from the pipe. If the old nipple is damaged andrecessed too far in the wall to get a pipe wrench on it,try an internal pipe wrench to save your plaster.Buy a replacement valve with female thread to screw ‘onto the nipple. Wrap ,he nipple with Teflon tape, andthen screw on the new valve with an adjustablewrench. Be sure to point the valve outlet toward thefixture as you finish the last turn. Turn the main valveback on and test for leaks.

Hot Water-Leaks from Valves4If the water heater leaks from the drain valve, firsttighten the valve. If that fails, you can install a brasshose cap with a hose washer inside. If you tighten thehose cap with pliers, it will stand up to typical waterpressure. Check the current pressure with a waterpressure gauge. If the reading is between 45 and 60psi, the problem is probably the relief valve.Turn offwater supply and the electricity or gas to the waterheater. Partially drain the tank. If there is an overflowpipe, remove it. Unscrew the relief valve, and screw ina new one.Low PressureMake sure all the valves are wide open. There couldbe blockage in the faucet or in the supply line to theoff the hot water angle stop, thenhot water side. Turn,'get a basin wrench and loosen the supply line whereit meets the faucet.Then get a bucket and hold thesupply line in it while turning on the angle stop. Ifyou have good pressure there, then the blockage isin the faucet.If you determine that it's in the faucet then: If it is thetype that has a cartridge, change the cartridge. If it isthe kind with stems, remove e hot water stem andcheck for particles qr damage. rf the faucet is the oldwasher style it will need to be disassembled, cleaned,oiled and rebuilt-If it's a newer style with cartridgesor a ball valve, then the cartridge or ball and assortedseals will need to be replaced.IHiqh PressureIf your water pressure is high, installing a regulatorand hot water expansion tank will allow excessivewater pressure to expand back to the main water linewhen the pressure exceeds the incoming water pres'sure. These devices will help reduce wear and tear onpipes and the risk of a pipe or supply tube bursting.The ABCsofPlombing 11I

FaucetsFaucets typically leak because of old gaskets or O-ringsand corroded valve seats. The single most commonmistake in faucet repair is not taking along the faucet/parts when buying the replacement parts.Before working on any faucet turn the water off andopen the lines to drain the water out. Cover the sinkwith a towel to protect it from tools that might dropand to prevent small parts from falling into the drain.Wrap the jaws of wrenches with tape to protect thefinish of the faucet.When you disassemble a faucet, pay close attention tothe order of the parts, it’s easy to forget the correctorder.You might even sketch, or photograph the parts’ laying in sequence. Follow manufacturer directions forinstalling the new parts.If you have less water flow when you turn the waterback on after a plumbing repair, rust is probablyclogging a valve. Old steel pipes (especially hot waterlines) rust on the inside. When you turn the waterback on, rust scales break loose and lodge in thevalves. To clear them out, open them to full flow. Alsounscrew the faucet aerators and rinse them clean.Today, most faucets can be categorized as being“washerless” (port-type faucets), or compression(washer).Note: A washerless faucet does not mean itwill never leak!Rather the parts will last longer since their designminimizes friction and wear. When repairing thistype of faucet or requesting service on one, it is vitalthat you know the brand name, or have a sample o f ‘the part you require.,I12 TheABCs ofPlumbingf

The ABCs ofplumbing 13


To determineR.H. threadL.H. thread(generally hot stem)(generally cold stemThread pitch(rising to right)Double AcmeThread, checkto'see if thethread originates in twoplaces on topat Points 1 & 2Thread pitch(rising to left)/Stem packingTop gasketBonnet nut(Uses top gasket, stempacking & friction ring)Broach\ Friction ringsometimes a friction ring)-Shank(Uses fiber gasket)CWnCCThreadswBarrelThe ABCs ofplumbing17

a,I18 .TheABCs ofPlumbingTo replace a washer, first turn off the water supplyline. Next, take the faucet apart and throw away theold washer. The most important thing about the newwasher is it’s size. The washer haq to fit around thevalve stem, spreading out to the edges, when it isscrewed down. When you’ve got the right size washer,put it in the old washer’s place and reassemble thefaucet. If the‘drip is still there, something else mightbe wrong and you may need to contact a plumber.If you own a faucet with a single lever, or joystick,the disassembly and repair is still relativery simple,but different from the valve stem and washer type. Ifyou need help, a good hardware or plumbing supply

AeratorsAlmost all faucets have an aerator at the tip of the faucetspout. An aerator mixes air and water for a smooth flow.You should clean aerators periodically, perhaps once ayear, to remove mineral and debris buildup.Unscrew the aerator, lay aerator parts on the counterin the order in which you removed them, or makea sketch of their order, so that you put them back'correctly. Flush the parts with water and clean thescreen holes with a toothbrush or toothpick.Hard-water scale can be removed by soaking the partsin vinegar or lime dissolver. Flush all parts with waterbefore putting them back together. If parts are worn,replace the worn parts or the entire aerator.7Remove old aerator.Inside threaded faucets:Place umer washer (A) on lower washer(B) in top of aerator (c).B/Screw aerator into inside threadsof faucet.Outside threaded faucets:CDiscard upper washer (A).With lower washer (B) in top of aerator,screw aerator onto outside threads.Preuenfiue Mainfenance 19

Clothes washer models vary, so the specific instructions that are available in the owner’s manual are veryimportant. Any devices made of rubber were never intended to last the lifetime of the appliance (rememberthe term “built-in obsolescence”?). Leaking or crackedvalves and hoses need to be replaced immediately. Preventive maintenance not only saves valuable water butalso could prevent a costly flood inside your home.Always turn offthe power before working on an appliance!--PROBLEM.POSSIBLE CAUSEACTIONLoose or cracked hoseor inlet valveTighten or replace inlet hoseor valve--Washing machine leakswhile fillingWater temperature may be Adjust water temperaturegreater than 170 degrees or if necessarythe house may be too coldin the winterWater drips down theoutside of the machineCracked inlet nozzleor loose hoseBe certain that hose is tightlyclamped Replace if necessaryWater leaks from pumpPump malfunctioningMay need to tighten or replaceclamps or replace pumpClothes washers account for approximately28 percent of all indoor water usage. Installationof a high-efficiency clothes washer can save about3 3 percent or 5,100 gallons of water per year.e’0If you’re buying a new washer, consider purchasing a high-efficiency washer. Some agencies haverebates available for water and energy savingclothes washers. Check with your salesperson,utility company, water agency and website (seepage 47) before purchase.Be sure to run f d l loads of clothing. For smaller*--*loads, match water level with the load size.isII20Preventive Maintenance1

DishwashersAs with all appliances, the most thorough instructionsare included in the owner’s manual. However, thelist below provides a short list of preventive maintenance.Visit your local library for a complete list ofhow-to man&.Check hoses on all home appliances routinely.Replace any worn hoses. This will prevent leaks orany unnecessary flooding in your home. Check thedishwasher sprayer and strainer periodically forfood particles or mineral buildup.Akvays turn offthepower before working on an appliance!PROBLEMPOSSIBLE CAUSEACTIONWater leaks from doorRubber gasket has becomehard or crackedReplace with new gasketif necessaryDishwasher overfilledwith waterFloat switch malfunctionedBe certain that the floatis functioningWater doesn’t drainout of dishwasherPump may be cloggedRemove food particles frompump & impellerWater doesn’t enter tubPressure switch malfunctionReplace switch or timerWater leaks from bottomduring wash cycleGasket may be either flattenedor torn near the bottomPull the old gasket out of theslot it sits in and replacewith new gasket,IPreoentiue Maintenance 21

Hot Water Demand Recirculation SystemsEach year, California homeowners allow an estimated120 billion gallons of water to run directly into theirsewer lines while waiting for hot water to arrive atsiowers and sinks. Every gallon of water that entersyour home requires energy and processing, and eachgallon that goes through your water heater requiresadditional energy. This loss of water puts a burden notonly on our natural resources, but also increases costsfor consumers.,If your'hot water source is far away from your show-ers and sinks, you may wish to look into a hot waterdemand recirculation system for your home. Studies\122 Preventive Maintenance

are currently in the preliminary stage, but will probablyprove to be a promising method of conserving water inthe near future.Pressure RegulatorsPressure regulators are used to reduce the pressure ofwater provided by your water agency or municipality.Check with your local Building Inspection Departmentto see if a pressure regulator is required. Many homesdo not have pressure regulators and do not seem toneed them. However, a pressure regulator may be required if your water pressure is over 80 psi. A pressureregulator allows you to reduce the incoming pressure.(In the case of wates delivered at a very low pressure,the regulator cannot increase the pressure).Interior plumbing fixtures and water related appliancesperform best at pressures between 40 to 60 psi. Highwater pressure causes fixtul;es to wear out sooner 'andmay shorten the life of water heaters and tanks. Waterfixtures such as showerheads are designed for a certainoptimum pressure. At high pressures more water isused. At low pressures the water conserving showerhead and aerators do not perform adequately. If you,want to determine the pressure at your residence, youcan purchase a pressure gauge at most hardware storesfor under 10.RefrigeratorsRefrigerators with cold water dispensers and icemakers have water lines which are usually concealedfrom view. The water line is connected under thesink and may run under or behind kitchen cabinets,or behind a wall. It connects to the back of the refrigerator. Be certain that you regularly check for leaks.Because the water line to the refrigerator is concealed,any small leaks can go undetected until it becomesa big, expensive leak. This can also damage otherappliances, cabinets, walls, and floors.Preuentioe Maintenance 23

Reverse Osmosis UnitsA reverse osmosis drinking water purification systemsacts like a sieve to filter and ext;act substances fromwater. A reverse osmosis system may be mounted undera sink cabinet or set on the ,counter (usually in thekitchen), or it may be connected to the main waterintake plumbing in your home.A reverse osmosis system is water-intensive. It not onlyuses water, but in some cases, puts water into the sewersystem without ever being consumed. Anytime the unitis filling the treated water tank, water can be wasted.Some under-sink models run a small amount of waterinto the drain constantly, even when the treated watertank is full and no drinking water is used. A reverseosmosis system can account for 7 to 8 percent of insidehousehold water consumption. It is important that thesystem be equipped with an automatic shutoff device.shower pipe (or “arm” as it is often called). Manyyears ago there were pipes with a built-in ball end.Those pipes must be replaced with a threaded end.Sometimes they are difficult to remove. Most ballsyou see when removing the original head have beenscrewed on, even‘if they are very tight, to the showerpifie. If you see even one thread, the head is normal.Once a year, remove and clean out the showerheadto prevent mineral deposits from building up in theshowerhead and distorting the shower stream.0l 1!2YPreuenfiue Maintenance\Use masking tape on the chrome pipe to protectthe finish from being scratched when usingwrenches or pliers. Use vi:e grips and a pair ofpliers, or a pipe wrench and pliers, to removethe old showerhead.

0Replace the Teflon tape on the end of shower pipe toprevent leaking.0Either: Clean the showerhead, back surface and free holeswith a needle. Re-install. Remove the masking tape.Or: Put on the new head according to the manufacturer’sinstructions. Remove the masking tape.Stuck Valves and BoltsMany people use WD-40 as penetrating oil to helploosen frozen bolts and valves. Use penetrating oilsuch as Liquid Wrench for loosening valves and bolts.WD-40 is not meant to be penetrating oil and willnot work as effectively,Once yod get it loose enough to start wiggling, itshould come off Be careful not to put too muchforce on a valve or you may break the stem. If thehandles are so corroded that they strip when youremove them, be sure to replace with new handles.Preventive hkinfenance 25

Toilet Tune-up TipsToilet problems are often summed up by comments like “it runs all thetime,” “it only runs in the middle of the night,” “it takes forever to refillmy toilet,” or “lately I have to flush it at least twice!”In the past it was quite simple to “tune the toilet” and in most instances,it still is! The b&c parts have not changed that much over the years. Thedescriptions provided on the fgllowing pages should help to guide youthrough the basics.Types of ToiletsThere are two basic types of toilets found in the home. Byremoving the lid from your tank you can quickly determinewhich type you have:Gravity-FedThe most common is the gravity-fed which relies on theweight of the water and head pressure (height of the water inyqur tank) to promote the flush. If you see freestanding waterwhen peering down into the tank, your toilet is gravity fed.Pressure-AssistThe pressure-assisted toilet relies on air pressure within acylindrical tank (metal or plastic-like material) inside yourJtoilet tank. Air inside the cylinder forces a vigorous and veryrapid flush. The cylinder, along with the “roaring/whooshing”sound when you flush it, are sure signs of a pressure-assistedtoilet. If you look inside your toilet tank, there should be nofree-standing water visible.The tuning of a pressure-assist mechanism is a task best leftto a plumbing professional specifically trained in the serviceof these devices. There are horror stories out there aboutdo-it-yourselfers who have tinkered with the adjustments ontheir pressure-assist toilets with nothing less than “shattering”results. Can you think of anything much worse than anexploding toilet? For this reason, all discussion below willbe directed to the gravity-fed toi et.Toilets usually consist of a tank and separate bowl, althoughthere are one-piece toilets where the tank and bowl are anintegral unit, The latter are usually of a lower profile designthah a two-piece unit.26 Preventive Mainfenance

Tank lid/C'Float/yR d r L-.-- .I,la tinqbolts andwashers-0.1Tank-to-bowlwasherMountingWax gasket:1Closet boltsPreuenfiue Maintenance 27

Toilet PartsTank -The tank is the top portion which holds either thefree-standing water to be flushed (gravity-fed) or thepressure-assist cylinder (pressure-assist) . On a gravityfed toilet the tank houses the fill valve (frequentlycalled a “ballcock”), the flush valve (usually includingan overflow tube with a flapper and flapper seat) andthe flush or trip lever. These parts are called “trim.”Tank Lid - It’s the top most part of your toilet tank andcovers the mechanisms inside your tank.Bowl -The bowl is the lower half of the toilet used to holdliquid and solid wastes prior to flushing.Water Spot/Sanitary Seal -This is the water surface that you.see inside the toilet bowl after the flush is completed.This water in the bowl assists with the movement ofsolids into the trapway and provides a liquid seal in thetrapway so that sewer gasses don’t pass from the wasteline into your home.Evacuation - In toilet talk, this is the flushing process thatremoves liquids and solids from your bowl.Tank to Bowl Seal -This is the round “donut-shaped” sealbetween the tank and bowl in a two-piece toilet. Thisseal provides a cushion upon which the tank restsand acts to prevent water leaks around the couplingbetween the tank and the bowl.Shut-off/SupplyValve -The valve on your wall near the baseof the toilet with a round or oval handle that allowsyou to shut your water off while servicing the toilet.Supply Line -This is the solid or flexible line betweenthe shut-off/supply valve and the connection on thebottom of your tank (fill valve fitting).Billy Bolt Set -A package of “T” shaped bolts, flat and domenuts, and round and/or oval washers used to connectthe toilet bowl to the closet-ring.Closet Ring -The metal or plastic flange that is permanentlyinstalled at the end of your waste line (at floor level)and has slots for the “T” Bolts /“Billy-Bolts.”The insidediameter is normally three to four inches. The closetring mates with the outlet on the bottom of your bowland provides the means for evacuation.28Preventive Maintenance

Wax Ring -The yellowish beeswax (or beeswax type material) ring between the bottom of your toilet bowl andthe mating closet-ring (flange). It is ‘‘donut” shaped,about one inch thick. A seal is achieved when the waxring is squeezed between the bottom of your toiletbowl and the top of the closet-ring.Ballcock (FillValve) -You will only find this in a gravityfed toilet. It is the tall mechanism you see inside yourtank (left-hand side) with a float connected to it bymeans of a metal rod or plastic arm. Or, instead of afloat mounted at the end of a rod, it can have thefloat sliding up and down the tube/barrel of themechanism itself.Float -The bulb-shaped sphere on the outer end of thefloat rod/arm OR the can-shaped float that slides upand down over the fill valve tube.Float Arm -The metal rod or plastic arm that connects theballcock’s float to the shut-off lever on the ballcockvalve itself On those fill valves without the float at theend of a rod or arm, a rod-like stiff-heavy wire linkwith an adjusting clip connects the shut-off lever tothe float, performing the same sh

a strain on your plumbing fixtures or pipes and even cause bursts in the water line. The ABCs of Plumbing 5 . Possible causes of low or no water pressure: 0 Bad diverter valve for a spray nozzle 0' Clogged water filter attached t