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HOURLY ANALYSIS PROGRAMQUICK REFERENCE GUIDECOPYRIGHT 1998-2016 CARRIER CORPORATION

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HAP Quick Reference GuideSoftware Systems NetworkCarrier Corporation10th Edition .(HAP v5.00) .4/2016Copyright 1998-2016 Carrier Corporation

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PrefaceABOUT THIS REFERENCE GUIDEThe HAP Quick Reference Guide provides instructional information for users of Carrier’s HourlyAnalysis Program (HAP). It describes how to use key features of the user interface, and how to use theprogram to design HVAC systems and estimate annual energy costs. This Guide also contains programtutorials, example problems and discussions of common applications. The Guide serves as a supplementto the program's help system which provides additional information including descriptions of all inputitems, program reports and program calculation procedures.ABOUT HAPCarrier’s Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) is a computer tool which assists engineers in designing HVACsystems for commercial buildings. HAP is two tools in one. First it is a tool for estimating loads anddesigning systems. Second, it is a tool for simulating building energy use and calculating energy costs.In this capacity it is useful for LEED , schematic design and detailed design energy cost evaluations.HAP uses the ASHRAE transfer function method for load calculations and detailed 8,760 hour-by-hoursimulation techniques for the energy analysis.This program is released as two separate, but similar products. The “HAP System Design Load”program provides system design and load estimating features. The full “HAP” program provides thesame system design capabilities plus energy analysis features. This Quick Reference Guide deals withboth programs.WHAT THIS REFERENCE GUIDE CONTAINSThe HAP Quick Reference Guide is divided into six chapters and four appendices: Chapter 1 (Getting Started) discusses basic program concepts - how to use HAP to design systemsand run energy analyses, how to operate the program, how to work with projects and performcommon tasks. Chapter 2 (HAP Tutorials) provides step-by-step instructions for using the program to designsystems and run energy analyses. These tutorials are designed for readers who are already familiarwith HAP terminology and concepts. Chapters 3 & 4 (Example Problems) contain two simple example problems illustrating how thesoftware is used to design an HVAC system and how it is used to run an energy analysis. Chapters 5 & 6 (“Applications”) provide a series of short discussions on how to use HAP to designcommon types of HVAC systems and how to run energy analyses for common equipment types. Appendix A (“Performing Common Tasks with HAP”) contains step-by-step procedures forperforming common tasks in HAP such as entering data, editing data and generating reports. Appendix B (“Performing Common Project Management Tasks”) provides short descriptions ofprocedures used to work with project data. Appendix C (“Index”) contains an index for this manual.All information in this Guide is also available in the HAP on-line help system. The on-line help systemalso includes extensive information about program inputs, reports and calculation procedures.LEED is a registered trademark of the US Green Building Council.HAP Quick Reference Guide1

Table of ContentsChapter 1Getting Started1.1 Welcome to the Hourly Analysis Program .1-11.2 Using HAP to Design Systems and Plants.1-21.3 Using HAP to Estimate Energy Use and Cost .1-31.4 Working with the HAP Main Program Window.1-71.5 Working with HAP Input Windows.1-101.6 Performing Common Tasks with HAP .1-121.7 Working with Projects .1-121.8 Using Documentation Resources in HAP .1-14Chapter 2HAP Tutorials2.1 HAP System Design Tutorial .2-12.2 HAP Energy Analysis Tutorial - Preliminary Design .2-32.3 HAP Energy Analysis Tutorial - Detailed Design .2-4Chapter 3System Design Example Problem3.1 Overview for the Example Problem .3-13.2 Defining the Problem.3-13.3 Gathering Data.3-23.4 Entering Data.3-63.5 Generating System Design Reports .3-83.6 Selecting Equipment.3-8Chapter 4Energy Analysis Example Problem4.1 Overview for the Example Problem .4-14.2 Defining the Problem.4-14.3 Gathering Data.4-24.4 Entering Data.4-44.5 Generating Simulation Reports.4-8Chapter 5Design Applications5.1 Application Information Overview.5-15.2 Applications Involving Single-Zone HVAC Units .5-15.3 Applications Involving Terminal Units .5-25.4 Applications Involving Multiple-Zone HVAC Systems .5-35.5 Applications Involving Cooling and Heating Plants.5-45.6 Troubleshooting Strategies .5-6Chapter 6Energy Analysis Applications6.1 Application Information Overview.6-16.2 Energy Analysis Strategies .6-16.3 Troubleshooting Strategies .6-36.4 Simulating Packaged Rooftop Units.6-56.5 Simulating Vertical Packaged Units .6-56.6 Simulating Split DX Air Handling Units .6-66.7 Simulating Chilled Water Air Handling Units.6-66.8 Simulating Packaged or Split DX Fan Coil Units.6-76.9 Simulating Hydronic Fan Coil Units .6-82HAP Quick Reference Guide

Table of ContentsChapter 6(continued)6.10 Simulating Induction Beam and Chilled Beam Systems.6-96.11 Simulating Water Source Heat Pump Systems .6-106.12 Simulating Ground Water and Ground Source Heat Pump Systems .6-106.13 Simulating Chilled Water Plants.6-116.14 Simulating Hot Water and Steam Plants.6-116.15 Simulating Heat Recovery Plants .6-126.16 Modeling Utility Rate Structures .6-13Appendix APerforming Common Tasks with HAPA.1 Basic Procedures for Common Tasks .A-1A.2 Creating a New Item .A-2A.3 Editing an Existing Item .A-3A.4 Using the On-Line Calculator to Enter Data.A-4A.5 Duplicating an Existing Item .A-5A.6 Duplicating a Building (with Spaces and HVAC Equipment) .A-6A.7 Copying Items.A-6A.8 Replacing Space Data .A-6A.9 Rotating Spaces .A-7A.10 Performing LEED (90.1 PRM) Rotations.A-8A.11 Deleting Items.A-8A.12 Generating Input Data Reports .A-9A.13 Generating System Design Reports.A-10A.14 Generating Plant Design Reports.A-10A.15 Generating System Simulation Reports .A-11A.16 Generating Plant Simulation Reports.A-11A.17 Generating Building Simulation Reports .A-12A.18 Using the Report Viewer .A-12A.19 Changing the List View Format .A-14A.20 Setting User Preferences.A-15Appendix BPerforming Common Project Management TasksB.1 Creating a New Project . B-1B.2 Opening an Existing Project . B-1B.3 Saving a Project . B-1B.4 Saving a Project as a New Project . B-2B.5 Deleting a Project . B-2B.6 Editing Project Properties . B-2B.7 Archiving a Project . B-3B.8 Retrieving a Project . B-3B.9 Converting Data From Previous Versions. B-4B.10 Publishing Equipment Sizing Requirements for Use in ECAT . B-6B.11 E-Mailing Project Data to Your Carrier Sales Engineer . B-8B.12 Exporting Results to Engineering Economic Analysis. B-9B.13 Importing Data From Another Project . B-9B.14 Importing Data From CAD and BIM Software. B-12B.15 Importing Data from a Building System Optimizer Project. B-15Appendix CHAP Quick Reference GuideIndex3

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Chapter 1Getting StartedThis chapter explains what Carrier’s Hourly Analysis Program does, how to use the software to designHVAC systems and estimate annual energy costs, and how to operate the software. We encourage you toread this chapter before using HAP.1.1 WELCOME TO THE HOURLY ANALYSIS PROGRAMWelcome to HAP. Welcome to Carrier’s Hourly Analysis Program (HAP). HAP is a computer toolwhich assists engineers in designing HVAC systems for commercial buildings. HAP is two tools in one.First it is a tool for estimating loads and designing systems. Second, it is a tool for simulating energy useand calculating energy costs. In this capacity it is useful for LEED , schematic design and detaileddesign energy cost evaluations. HAP uses the ASHRAE-endorsed transfer function method for loadcalculations and detailed 8,760 hour-by-hour energy simulation techniques for the energy analysis.This program is released as two similar, but separate products. The “HAP System Design Load”program provides the system design and load estimating features. The full “HAP” program provides thesame system design capabilities plus energy analysis features. This Quick Reference Guide deals withboth programs.HAP System Design Features. HAP estimates design cooling and heating loads for commercialbuildings in order to determine required sizes for HVAC system components. Ultimately, the programprovides information needed for selecting and specifying equipment. Specifically, the program performsthe following tasks: Calculates design cooling and heating loads for spaces, zones, and coils in the HVAC system.Determines required airflow rates for spaces, zones and the system.Sizes cooling and heating coils.Sizes air circulation fans.Sizes chillers and boilers.HAP Energy Analysis Features. HAP estimates annual energy use and energy costs for HVAC andnon-HVAC energy consuming systems in a building by simulating building operation for each of the8,760 hours in a year. Results of the energy analysis are used to compare the energy use and energy costsof alternate HVAC system designs so the best design can be chosen. Specifically, HAP performs thefollowing tasks during an energy analysis: Simulates hour-by-hour operation of all heating and air conditioning systems in the building.Simulates hour-by-hour operation of all plant equipment in the building.Simulates hour-by-hour operation of non-HVAC systems including lighting and appliances.Uses results of the hour-by-hour simulations to calculate total annual energy use and energy costs.Costs are calculated using actual utility rate features such as stepped, time-of-day and demandcharges, if specified.Generates tabular and graphical reports of hourly, daily, monthly and annual data.If you have questions about the program: In the United States or Canada, please [email protected] In other countries, please contact your local Carrier sales office orlocal Carrier distributor.HAP Quick Reference Guide1-1

Chapter 1Getting Started1.2 USING HAP TO DESIGN SYSTEMS AND PLANTSThis section briefly describes, in conceptual terms, how to use HAP to design systems and plants.Application of these concepts will be demonstrated both in the HAP tutorial in Chapter 2 and in theexample problem in Chapter 3. All design work requires the same general five step procedure:1. Define the Problem. First define the scope and objectives of the design analysis. For example,what type of building is involved? What type of systems and equipment are required? What specialrequirements will influence system features?2. Gather Data. Before design calculations can be performed, information about the building, itsenvironment and its HVAC equipment must be gathered. This step involves extracting data frombuilding plans, evaluating building usage and studying HVAC system needs. Specific types ofinformation needed include: Climate data for the building site.Construction material data for walls, roofs, windows, doors, exterior shading devices and floors,and for interior partitions between conditioned and non-conditioned regions.Building size and layout data including wall, roof, window, door and floor areas, exposureorientations and external shading features.Internal load characteristics determined by levels and schedules for occupancy, lighting systems,office equipment, appliances and machinery within the building.Data concerning HVAC equipment, controls and components to be used.3. Enter Data Into HAP. Next, use HAP to enter climate, building and HVAC equipment data. Whenusing HAP, your base of operation is the main program window (described in greater detail inSection 1.4). From the main program window, first create a new project or open an existing project.Then define the following types of data which are needed for system design work:a. Enter Weather Data. Weather data defines the temperature, humidity and solar radiationconditions the building encounters during the course of a year. These conditions play animportant role in influencing loads and system operation. To define weather data, a city can bechosen from the program's weather database, or weather parameters can be directly entered.Weather data is entered using the weather input window.b. Enter Space Data. A space is a region of the building comprised of one or more heat flowelements and served by one or more air distribution terminals. Usually a space represents asingle room. However, the definition of a space is flexible. For some applications, it is moreefficient for a space to represent a group of rooms or even an entire building.To define a space, all elements which affect heat flow in the space must be described. Elementsinclude walls, windows, doors, roofs, skylights, floors, occupants, lighting, electrical equipment,miscellaneous heat sources, infiltration, and partitions.While defining a space, information about the construction of walls, roofs, windows, doors andexternal shading devices is needed, as well as information about the hourly schedules for internalheat gains. This construction and schedule data can be specified directly from the space inputwindow (via links to the construction and schedule windows), or alternately can be defined priorto entering space data.Space information is stored in the project database and is later linked to zones in an air system.c. Enter Air System Data. An Air System is the equipment and controls used to provide coolingand heating to a region of a building. An air system serves one or more zones. Zones are groupsof spaces having a single thermostatic control. Examples of systems include central station airhandlers, packaged rooftop units, packaged vertical units, split systems, packaged DX fan coils,hydronic fan coils and water source heat pumps. In all cases, the air system also includesassociated ductwork, supply terminals and controls.To define an air system, the components, controls and zones associated with the system must bedefined as well as the system sizing criteria. This data is entered on the air system input window.1-2HAP Quick Reference Guide

Getting StartedChapter 1d. Enter Plant Data. A Plant is the equipment and controls used to provide cooling or heating tocoils in one or more air systems. Examples include chiller, changeover, hot water, service hotwater and steam boiler plants.This step is optional; it is only required if you are sizing the plants. To define a plant for designpurposes, the type of plant and the air systems it serves must be defined. This data is entered onthe plant input window.4. Use HAP to Generate Design Reports. Once weather, space, air system and plant data has beenentered, HAP can be used to generate system and plant design reports.To generate design reports, go to the main program window and select the desired air systems orplants. Next choose the “Print/View Design Results” menu bar option, toolbar button, or pop-upmenu option. For systems this displays the System Design Reports window; for plants this displaysthe Plant Design Reports window. Select the desired report options on this window. If calculationsare needed to supply data for these reports, the program will automatically run the calculations beforegenerating the reports. If all the data needed for the reports already exists, reports are generatedimmediately.5. Select Equipment. Finally, use data from the reports you generated to select the appropriate coolingand heating equipment from product catalogs or electronic catalog software. System and plantdesign reports provide information necessary to select all the components of your HVAC systemincluding air handlers, packaged equipment, supply terminals, duct systems, piping systems and plantequipment.Carrier can provide a wide variety of electronic catalog computer programs to make selectingequipment quick and easy. Please contact your local Carrier sales office or Carrier distributor fordetails.1.3 USING HAP TO ESTIMATE ENERGY USE AND COSTThis section briefly describes, in conceptual terms, how to use HAP to estimate annual energy use andenergy costs for a building. HAP is designed with features to help you efficiently compare energy costsof HVAC design alternatives both in the preliminary design phase of a project and in the detailed designphase of a project:1. In the Preliminary or Schematic Design Phase of a project a variety of HVAC designs andequipment types may be under consideration. The goal of energy analysis in this phase of a project isto quickly compare the energy cost performance of many design alternatives to identify a small groupof designs with the best performance for further, more detailed study. Simplification andapproximation may be appropriate here both because of limited information about the building andbecause speed is important in evaluating the alternatives. The HAP Wizard interface is designed tohelp you quickly perform these types of energy analysis. See 1.3.1 for details.2. In the Detailed Design Phase of a project one or a small set of HVAC designs is underconsideration. The goal of energy analysis in this phase of a project is to carefully analyze andoptimize the design. The goals here may also include generating documentation for LEED Energyand Atmosphere Credit 1. Given these goals, more detailed definition of the building and its HVACequipment is typically needed. The HAP detailed design interface is designed to help you performthese types of energy analysis. See 1.3.2 for details.1.3.1 HAP Energy Analysis for Preliminary DesignThis sub-section describes in conceptual terms how to use HAP to perform an energy analysis in thepreliminary or schematic design phase of a project where simplification and approximation areappropriate. Application of these concepts will be demonstrated in the HAP tutorial in Chapter 2.Analysis work requires a general five step procedure:HAP Quick Reference Guide1-3

Chapter 1Getting Started1. Define the Problem. First define the scope and objectives of the energy analysis. For example,what type of building is involved? What type of systems and equipment are required? Whatalternate designs or energy conservation measures are being compared in the analysis?2. Gather Data. Before energy simulations can be run, general information about the building, itsenvironment, the types of HVAC and non-HVAC equipment, and its energy prices must be gathered.This step involves extracting data from building plans, evaluating building usage, studying HVACsystem needs and acquiring utility rate schedules. Specific types of information needed include: Climate data for the building site.General information about building size, shape, layout and number of floors.General information about the type of wall, window and roof envelope construction to be used.General information about the space usage in the building which will affect occupant density andlighting and equipment usage levels.General information about the type of air-side systems, equipment and components to beconsidered.General information about prices for electric service and any fuel sources used in the building.3. Enter Data Into HAP. Next, use HAP to enter data for the analysis. When using HAP, your base ofoperation is the main program window. From the main program window, first create a new project oropen an existing project. Then use the "Full Wizard Session" feature to rapidly enter all your datafor the analysis.From the main program window choose the "Full Wizard Session" option on the Wizards menu, orclick the "Full Wizard Session" button on the toolbar. The Full Wizard Session window providesaccess to all of the HAP Wizards: The Weather Wizard - Used to quickly configure weather data for the building site.The Building Wizard - Used to rapidly define the size, shape, layout, envelope and internalloads for the building spaces.The Equipment Wizard - Used to easily create HVAC design alternatives.The Utility Rate Wizard - Used to quickly assemble electric and fuel pricing data.After entering data on the Wizard input screens, press the Finish button in the lower left of the FullWizard Session window. HAP converts your Wizard data into a full set of detailed HAP inputs anddisplays them in the HAP main window.4. Use HAP to Generate Simulation Reports. Once all input data has been entered, HAP can be usedto generate reports showing energy cost results.To generate building simulation reports, go to the main program window and select the buildingsrepresenting your set of HVAC design alternatives. Next choose the “Print/View SimulationResults” option on the Reports Menu. This displays the Building Simulation Reports Selectionwindow. Choose the desired reports. Then press Preview to display the reports or press Print todirectly pri

HAP estimates annual energy use and energy costs for HVAC and non-HVAC energy consuming systems in a building by simulating building operation for each of the 8,760 hours in a year. Results of the energy analysis are used to compare the energy use and energy costs of alternate HVAC