ACRP is an Industry-Driven Program Managed by TRB andsponsored by the FederalAviation Administration (FAA). Seeks out the latest issuesfacing the airport industry. Conducts research to findsolutions. Publishes and disseminatesresearch results through freepublications and webinars.

Opportunities to Get Involved! ACRP’s Champion program isdesigned to help early- to midcareer, young professionals growand excel within the airport industry. Airport industry executives sponsorpromising young professionalswithin their organizations to becomeACRP Champions. Visit ACRP’s website to learn more.

Join us for the2018 ACRP Symposium onResearch in Progress at the TRB Annual Meeting!Date: Sunday, January 7, 2018Time: 8:00 am to 4:00 pmLocation: See the TRB Annual Meeting eProgram.aspxWith a special interactive session onAlternatives to SurveysWill be available via webinar!Webinar ster/555971740472566787Questions?Email us at: [email protected]

Airport Roles in ReducingTransmission ofCommunicable DiseasesMarch 6 – 7, 2018 Washington, D.C.Featured speakers: CAPT Martin Cetron, MD – Director, CDC’s Division ofGlobal Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) Dr. Ansa Jordaan – Chief, Aviation Medicine Section,International Civil Aviation Organization Dr. Petra Illig – Aviation Medical Services, Alaska Dr. Kamran Khan – St. Michael’s Hospital, TorontoModerated discussion by outbreak responders fromDallas-Fort Worth, New York City, Phoenix, and Portland.Ebola virus virionby CDC microbiologist, Cynthia GoldsmithRegister for

Upcoming ACRP WebinarsJanuary 18, 2018Uses of Social Media During anAirport EmergencyJanuary 31, 2018Transportation Network Companies:Challenges and Opportunitiesfor Airport Operators

Additional ACRP PublicationsAvailable on this TopicReport 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planningand DesignReport 52: Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines forAirport Terminals and LandsideReport 55: Passenger Level of Service and SpatialPlanning for Airport TerminalsReport 130: Guidebook for Airport TerminalRestroom Planning and Design

Today’s SpeakersJim Harding – Gresham, Smith, and Partners; andLaurel Van Horn – Open Doors OrganizationPresentingReport 177: Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for theElderly and Persons with DisabilitiesRichard Carman and Deborah Jue – Wilson IhrigJoel Lewitz – Audiovisual ConsultantPresentingReport 175: Improving Intelligibility of AirportTerminal Public-Address Systems

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARDEnhancing Wayfinding and Public AddressSystems for a Positive Traveler ExperienceWednesday, December 13, 20172:00pm to 3:30pm ET

PurposeDiscuss research from the Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP)’s ResearchReport 175: Improving Intelligibility of Airport Terminal Public Address Systems andResearch Report 177: Enhancing Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons withDisabilities.Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this webinar, you will be able to: Identify how practices and recommendations for assisting aging travelers andpersons with disabilities are based on the principles of universal design Describe the wayfinding accessibility audit checklist Understand the guidelines for developers of mobile apps for aging travelers andpersons with disabilities Understand how to provide practical and actionable information that airportsand their consultants can use in designing, procuring, installing and operating,training, and maintaining PA systems

ACRP Report 175:Improving Intelligibility ofAirport Terminal PublicAddress SystemsRichard CarmanDeborah JueJoel Lewitz

ACRP 07-14 Research TeamWilson IhrigRichard CarmanDeborah JueGary GlickmanHKS ArchitectsRick LeeLee GlennAV ConsultantJoel LewitzCCD (HumanFactors)Adam ParkesDavid WattsKaren JacksonCross-SpectrumAcousticsHerb SingletonChips Davis DesignsChips Davis

PresentersRichard A. Carman, PhD, PEPrincipal InvestigatorEmeritus Senior Principal, Wilson IhrigDeborah A. Jue, INCE-USAPrincipal, Wilson IhrigJoel A. Lewitz, PE, FASA, FAESAV design consultant

ACRP Report 175Oversight PanelTimothy M. Mitchell, Boeing (Chair)Christopher Blasie, Rockwell Collins/ARINC AirportsAlan G. Hass, Landrum and BrownDarryl K. McDonald, Austin Commercial, LPHeather McKee, Denver International AirportAmiel Porta, San Diego County Regional AirportAuthorityHolly Cyrus, FAA LiaisonTheresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer

ObjectiveThe objective of this research is to develop designguidelines to improve public-address speechintelligibility for passenger processing-interfacesfor all types and sizes of airport terminalenvironments.These guidelines are intended to be used byairport operators and design consultants.

Participating AirportsAnchorage International AirportBroward County Aviation DepartmentBurlington International AirportCity of Chicago/Department of AviationCity of Boise/Boise AirportCity of Phoenix Aviation DepartmentCity of San Antonio/SAASCorpus Christi International AirportDallas/Fort Worth International AirportDenver International AirportFairbanks International AirportFort Wayne International AirportLos Angeles World AirportsMaryland Aviation AdministrationMaryland Aviation Administration (BWI)McCarran International AirportMetropolitan Airports CommissionMonterey Regional AirportNantucket Memorial AirportOakland International AirportPhiladelphia International AirportPittsburgh International AirportPortland International AirportPrince George Airport AuthoritySalt Lake City/Department of AirportsSan Diego County Regional AirportSan Francisco International AirportSavannah Airport CommissionSeattle-Tacoma International AirportStockton Metropolitan AirportWichita Airport Authority

Overview of researchAcoustics, PA Design and Human Factors Research– Literature review (some relevant info from other large publicspaces)– Industry survey (perceptions, understanding of underlying issues)– Field measurements (document existing conditions) and PassengersurveySynthesis and Analysis– Apply relevant information and studies– Find common ground between best practice for acoustics and fieldmeasurementsGuidelines– Practical information for design and operations– Key take-aways include Four design parameters Two operations principles

Components of SpeechIntelligibility Design

Guidance Highlights: Design1. Use a Speech Transmission Index (STI) 0.60 target– Performance testing occurs at night– Daytime operations will result in a lower STI ( 0.50)2. Use PA system that provides 10 to 15 dB signal-tonoise ratio– Use typical daytime ambient noise conditions3. Ensure adequate acoustically absorptive treatment– Nominally 15 to 25% of surface area– Suitable reverberation time is critical to achieving speechintelligibility4.Where ceiling heights are higher than 24 ft– Use professional input for acoustics and PA system design– Avoid ceiling-mounted loudspeakers in these types ofspaces

Guidance Highlights:Operations1. Require commissioning to verify andoptimize the PA system prior to sign-off oracceptance2. Prepare announcements so they takeadvantage of human response tobroadcast information (human factors)

Speech Transmission Index(STI)Objective measure of how the transmission speechpath affects intelligibility [0 to 1]Takes into account physical, site-specific factors thataffect the intelligibility of transmitted speechBased on the field measurements conducted for theresearch, a target STI 0.50 has been identified fordaytime conditions.Test signalKnownsignalthrough PARoomRoomacousticsSTIcalculationSpeech transmission pathSTIPA test signal

Examples of STIQualification BandsSTI ypical UsesCommentsHigh speechTheaters, courts, assistiveintelligibilitylistening systems, classrooms,Good speechconcert hallsintelligibilityHigh-quality PAConcert halls, modern churchessystemsAcceptable for voicePublic spaces, cathedralsaddress (target 0.50)0.42–0.45 Difficult (challenging) spaces0.00–0.41Not suitable for PAsystems

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)NighttimeSTI Target

Daytime vs. NighttimeThese STI measurements are typically made during off-operationperiods with low ambient noise conditions.Daytime ambient conditions were 7 dBA higher than nighttimeconditions.The SNR during daytime operations would thus be much lowerMathematically calculating a daytime STI based on the daytimeambient sound environment can results in an STI that is, onaverage .20 points lower than the nighttime condition.To achieve a daytime STI of 0.50, it may be necessary to provide adesign that achieves STI 0.60 to 0.70 during the quieternighttime period.Practically speaking it may be difficult to achieve 0.70 in passengerterminal environments, thus STI 0.60 was derived as aperformance target based on field measurement results

Reverberation Time (RT60)5.9 seconds

RT60 and Ceiling HeightNighttimeSTI Target

Ceiling HeightIt is desirable to adhere to a median ceiling height closeto 13 ft. to achieve the daytime STI target.Suitable design for areas with 13 ft. ceilings is generallystraightforward to achieve– Limited input required from design professionals in acousticsor PA system design.Ceiling heights greater than 24 feet are poor candidatesfor ceiling-mounted loudspeakers– Input from an acoustical consultant is essential– Other types of loudspeakers are typically required

CommissioningPA system design and performance in the builtenvironment can be simulated with softwareReal-world conditions often require site-specific tweaks inthe gain and equalization settingsIntegrator (installing contractor) can and should do this, butspeech intelligibility experience is sometimes limitedProfessional commissioning is important to verify andoptimize proper installation, but this step cannotovercome poor designBring in a qualified third-party commissioning agent

Announcements and HumanFactorsUse key words, or “hooks” at the beginning of the announcement todraw passenger attention to PA messagesClearly state if information presented is a change to that previouslygivenKeep messages simple and conciseAnnouncements should be spoken clearly and at a measured pacePlay or announce important messages twice consecutivelyMinimize audio clutterConsider using the female voice for specific types of announcementswhere factors challenge listeners and reduce attention orintelligibility (e.g., international terminal, text-to-speech)Flight information, and updates, should be presented consistentlyacross PA announcements and FIDS to avoid conflicts andconfusion

Lower level gate STI 0.39

Lower level gate area

High-ceiling space STI 0.69

High-ceiling space

For additional information:ACRP Report 175Improving Intelligibility ofAirport Terminal PublicAddress Systems Richard [email protected] Deborah [email protected] Joel urbs/176329.aspx

ACRP 177Enhancing Wayfinding for Aging TravelersandPersons with Disabilities

RESEARCH TEAM Gresham, Smith and Partners (Principal Investigator)Open Doors OrganizationArora EngineersGeorgia Tech - Center for Assistive Technology andEnvironmental AccessUniversity of South Florida - Center for UrbanTransportation ResearchJohn DuvalSouthwest AirlinesPRESENTERSLaurel Van HornOpen DoorsJim HardingGS&P

RESEARCH PERIOD Research was conducted from 2014 to 2016Guidebook published October, 2017

PREVIOUS RESEARCH- ACRP Synthesis 51: Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports- ACRP Report 52: Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for AirportTerminals and LandsideThe purpose of ACRP 177: Enhancing Wayfinding for Aging Travelersand Persons with Disabilities is NOT to repeat the content in ACRPReport 52

CURRENT RESEARCHProject 01-31: Innovative Solutions to Facilitate Accessibility for AirportTravelers with DisabilitiesLead Investigator: Laurel Van Horn, Open Doors OrganizationSynthesis 04-19: Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in EmergencyExercisesProject 04-21: Emergency Communication Models for Persons withDisabilities andNon-English Speakers

OBJECTIVEThe key overall goal of the guidebook’s content is to:Engage the reader, understand the user, and equip the reader with theWHO, WHAT, WHY and HOW an airport can Create a difference that creates change that promotes Independent Travel.

OBJECTIVEIn order to achieve the overall objective of helping aging travelers andpersons with disabilities to travel independently, an airport has toconsider more than just helping these customers know where to go.Unless a comprehensive list of considerations are addressed, thesecustomers will encounter issues that affect their ability to travelindependently regardless of their wayfinding abilities.Therefore, guidebook 177 is about more than just wayfinding; it is about acustomer experience aimed at promoting independent travel for agingtravelers and persons with disabilities

ORGANIZATIONChapter 1: Introduction WHYChapter 2: Understanding the Needs of Aging Travelers and Passengers withDisabilities using Universal Design WHOChapter 3: Wayfinding Strategies via Visual, Verbal, and Virtual Communication WHATChapter 4: Airport Planning & Design ConsiderationsChapter 5: Departing Customer JourneyHOWChapter 6: Arriving Customer JourneyChapter 7: Connecting Customer JourneyChapter 8: Wayfinding Technologies for Aging Travelers and Persons with DisabilitiesAPPLICATION & IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 1 IntroductionWHY this research is importantOver a 10-year period, theDOT Annual Reports toCongress showed a 139%increase in disabilitycomplaints for all air carriers.Roughly half these complaintsare due to wheelchair servicefailuresSource: U.S. Department of Transportation Annual Report of Disability-Related Air Travel Complaints

Chapter 1 IntroductionWHY this research is importantObjective: to help airports successfully communicate information toaging travelers and persons with disabilities to help them find their wayusing the principles of universal design.

Chapter 1 IntroductionWHY this research is importantWhat is Wayfinding?Information systems that guide people through a physical environmentand enhance their understanding and experience of the space.Source: Society for Experiential Graphic Design

Chapter 2 Principles of Universal Design Understanding WHO are the different types of passengerswith disabilities and aging travelers Outlines universal design and its principles, illustratingtheir application in airports.Why? Because Universal Design benefits almost everyone the focus of universal designAverageAbilitiesHeight & Reach the focus of design for disabilityHealthConditionsAgeSource: Pruett, Scott and Sarah, Universal Design Guide for Inclusive Tourism

Chapter 2 Principles of Universal DesignWHO are the different types of passengers with disabilities and aging travelers? Broad disability categories include blind and low vision, deaf and hard of hearing, ambulatory and nonambulatory, and intellectual disabilities including autism and dementia. Very important to understand that each person with a disability is an individual with unique needs. For example, the needs of a traveler with late onset vision loss will be different from someone bornpartially sighted, even though their visual acuity is more or less identical. Coping skills, psychologicalmakeup, past travel experiences and much more have a role to play. Because of these individual differences that the primary focus must be on creating universalaccessibility, enabling wayfinding by all travelers regardless of ability, rather than meeting the assumedneeds of a general disability type.

Chapter 2While disabilityaffects all agegroups, itsprevalence risessteeply with age.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Americans with Disabilities: 2010

Chapter 2 Principles of Universal DesignPopulation Aged 65and Over:1900-2050Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 65 In The United States: 2010

Chapter 2 Principles of Universal DesignWireless Use and Device Type – is there a technology dividebased on disability and age? Americans with disabilities (SUN) vs. General population (PEW)Sources: Wireless RERC, Survey of User Needs, 2012-2013. Pew Internet Surveys, 2006-2013The 2012-13 Survey ofUser Needs (SUN) bythe RehabilitationEngineering ResearchCenter for WirelessTechnologies (RERC)finds that "as a group,people with disabilitiesown and use wirelesstechnology at ratessimilar to the generalpopulation” (Morris et al2013).

Chapter 2 Principles of Universal Design Appropriate languageBy acknowledging theperson first, one isrecognizing that thisindividual is more than justtheir disability.Therefore, person-firstlanguage is usedthroughout this guidebook,e.g., "a man who is blind"rather than "a blind man."Source: Open Doors Organization

Chapter 2 - Principles of Universal Design Example of universal design Principle 2 - Flexibility in Use:The design accommodates a wide range of individualpreferences and abilities.Trace EZAccess KeypadSource: ACRP 177 Research TeamSFO

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’sWHAT type of information is needed to communicate with the various passengertypesVISUALVERBALVIRTUALTACTILE

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’s“3 V’s” of Communication123Source: ACRP Report 161 - results from eight U.S. gateway airports, show percentages of the level of customer satisfaction for each factor surveyed

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’sVisualCommunicationAge 20Age 60Age 75Human vision deteriorates with age, with older adults often experiencing significant vision problemsin low-light environments. The above images show how much aging changes the relativetransmission of light through the optic media for viewers of ages 20, 60 and 75Uniform, legible typefaces like the sans-serif font, Frutiger Bold, as it would be seen by a viewer withno vision problem (left) compared to an example of how it would be perceived by a viewerexperiencing a loss of light and focus (right). Despite loss of resolution, the message remains legible.Source: Typography and the Aging Eye: Typeface Legibility for Older Viewers with Vision Problems by Paul Nini (01.23.06).

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’sVerbal CommunicationCall center, information desks,Roving ambassadors with tabletsTraining is key—disabilityawareness and communication,familiarity with airport accessfeaturesVirtual support—airportaccessibility database,video relay interpreting,language translation, etc.Verbal communicationis a very importantpart of the wayfindingexperience for agingtravelers and personswith disabilities.A building’s designshould allow people touse its features inmore than oneprescribed way, e.g.,standing and seated,as at this informationdesk at TampaInternational Airport.UD Principle 2.Flexibility in Use:The designaccommodates a widerange of individualpreferences andabilities.TPA

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’sVirtual Communication via Pre-trip PlanningThe ability to plan inadvance via digital mediais becoming more andmore effective. For olderadults and pax withdisabilities, advanceknowledge can greatlyenhance the wayfindingexperience. TheWayfinding AccessibilityAudit Checklistrecommends including alink for disability-relatedinformation andresources. The preferredLOS is to have a link onthe home page. A higherLOS would have the linkvisible above the scrollLAX

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’sVirtual & Verbal Communication – Help Point KioskAccessible help/callpoints are easy-to-usecommunicationdevices that providemeans for arrivingtravelers needingaccessibilityinformation orassistance to connectto a remotely locatedservice provider.These devices helpprovide convenientpoints for people withdisabilities to initiatetheir wayfindingexperience upon theirarrival at the terminal.CDG/LGA/MAD/MUC

Chapter 3 Wayfinding Strategies - 3 V’sTactileCommunicationUses of tactileinformation can beless obvious. Forinstance, cleardelineation between ahard surface floor inthe main concourse,versus a soft,carpeted surface in ahold-room seatingarea creates ashoreline that canprovide a detectable,navigable path. Asimilar concept canalso be applied to theboarding gate area.For those with lowvision, contrastinglight and dark colorsprovide an additionalcue.Source: ACRP Research TeamATL

Chapters 4, 5, 6, & 7 – Applying the 3 V’s4. Airport Planning and Design5. Departing Customer Journey6. Arriving Customer Journey7. Connecting Customer JourneyHOW to create a difference that creates a change and whereappropriate WHY it is important.

Wayfinding Accessibility Audit ChecklistFirst of its kind consolidated tool that merges both wayfinding analyses ANDaccessibility audits into a single all-inclusive assessment.Includes wayfinding strategies and accessibility features relevant to a passenger’sspecific disability.The following key factors must be evaluated: Organized by journey segment: Departing - Arriving - Connecting & key touch points Type of disability or functional limitation accommodated Mobility, Vision, Hearing, Cognition 3V’s of communication: Visual - Verbal - Virtual Standards and/or regulations or other guidance that apply

Recommendations and/or Requirements

Type of communication

Types of disability

Standards reference

VIRTUAL MODELChecklist is illustrated in 3D virtual airport model

VIRTUAL MODELUnique reference numberlabels in the 3D virtualmodel correlate with thechecklist

Chapter 4 Airport Planning & Design

Chapter 4 Airport Planning & DesignPlanned adjacenciesThere are plannedadjacencies at keydecision nodes forinformation sources:Virtual, e.g., FlightInformation DisplaySystems (FIDS)Verbal, e.g., staffpositions and informationdesksVisual, e.g., airportdirectories, etc.AMS

Chapter 4 Airport Planning & DesignPre-trip planning informationOnline virtual tour forpre-trip planning iscaptioned 2 that usesboth captioning for thosewho cannot hear as wellas audio for persons whoare blind or have lowvisionBOS

Chapter 5 Departing Customer Journey

Chapter 5 Departing Customer JourneyVertical Transitions: Section 5.7 Intuitive Clear line of sight Adjacency

Chapter 5 Departing Customer JourneyVertical Transitions: Section 5.7Escalators includevisual reinforcementof operating direction.Simple, bold graphicindicators helpcustomers withcognitive issues, aswell aging travelerswho may struggle withvisual acuity, knowwhich escalator to useat vertical transitions,and also helpsmitigate safetyconcerns associatedwith escalatorsCHANGI

Chapter 5 Departing Customer JourneyVertical Transitions: Section 5.7Elevators that haveglass doors promoteopen sight lines andease of identification.The consequence ofarchitectural designthat hides essentialvertical transportationis adding extrasignage andwayfinding.MUC

Chapter 5 Departing Customer JourneyVertical Transition: Intuitive design Over-signing is commonly used to compensate for the complex floor planlayouts where wayfinding is a chronic problem. Increases in plan complexity are directly related to decreases in wayfindingperformance. The presence of signs is not able to compensate for wayfindingproblems due to the complexity of the floor plan. The next 2 slides are a comparison of non-intuitive versus intuitive wayfindingat vertical transitions and WHY architecture plays a critical role.

Chapter 5 Departing Customer JourneyVertical Transition: Non-intuitive designThe PragueInternational Airport(PRG), illustrates thechallenges of trying toovercome nonintuitive architecturethat dictatescounterintuitivepassenger circulationat the bottom of theescalators.PRG

Chapter 5 Departing Customer JourneyVertical Transition: Intuitive designBy comparison,escalators at theZurich Airport providesimple, clear and boldvisual graphics thatsupport intuitivewayfinding in waysthat can helpcustomers withcognitive disabilities.ZRH

Chapter 6 Arriving Customer Journey

Chapter 6 Arriving Customer JourneyService Animal Relief Area (SARA) at DTW McNamaraInteractive digitaltechnologyList gate # nearest tothe amenityShows route andphotos of thedestinationDTW

Chapter 6 Arriving Customer JourneyService Animal Relief Area (SARA)Large sign withpictogramSmaller sign withvisual, tactile andBraille lettering andpictogram, positionedper ADA standardService Animal ReliefArea (SARAs)available airside arecentrally located tominimize walk times,have appropriatedirectional andidentification signage,appear on mapsdirectories. 49 CFRPart 27.71 requiresSARAs airside withlimited exceptions.Location of the SARAat DTW iscommunicatedvirtually through theinteractive directories,that show route andphoto of destination tohelp with recognitionand confirmationvisually.DTW

Chapter 6 Arriving Customer JourneyInternational arrivalsSigns, visually indicatelanes for employeesand people withdisabilities. Thisbenefits those not beingescorted, especiallythose with hiddendisabilities.Color-coded wayfindingin the Customs andBorder Patrol area atBOS helps visuallyguide persons withdisabilities withadvance educationprior to the queue andconfirmation at queueentry point.BOS

Chapter 6 Arriving Customer JourneyInternational arrivalsDedicated lanes forpersons with disabilitiesat Boston LoganInternational AirportBOS

Chapter 7 Connecting Customer Journey

Chapter 7 Connecting Customer JourneyLandmarksProviding informationthat can help customersestablish relationshipsbetween concretelandmarks and graphicrepresentations onmaps is one way tohelp aging travelersand persons withdisabilities navigate acomplex airportenvironment andconfirm they are on thecorrect path to find theirconnecting gate.Example at DFWshows how artwork, inthis case a castle, canbe used as arecognizable landmarkfor navigation.DFW

Chapter 7 Connecting Customer JourneyHelp pointsLocated at regular intervals along the concourse,including at major decision pointsIdentified by visual and tactile signage.Information includes the location of the courtesyphone.LGW

Chapter 8 Wayfinding Technologies forAging Travelers and Persons withDisabilitiesTechnology that shows HOW to create a difference that creates a change andwhere appropriate, WHY it is important.

Chapter 8 Wayfinding Technologies8.1 Overview8.2 Accessible Websites8.3 Mobile Wayfinding APPS8.4 Accessible Help/Call Points8.5 Interactive Kiosks8.6 Digital Wayfinding Directories8.7 FIDS (Flight Information Display System)8.8 Hearing Loops8.9 Visual PagingAPPLICATION &IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 8 Wayfinding TechnologiesSection 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding APPSCurrent mobile applications for airport wayfinding do not meet the needs of users withdisabilities. The research team asked participants to download and test award-winning andindustry-leading applications from airports around the world, such as the airport app atAmsterdam Airport Schiphol that is now in its fifth generation.

Chapter 8 Wayfinding TechnologiesSection 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding APPSEach airport’s app was rated for functionality or capability as it pertained to the universaldesign principles as good (4), fair (3), poor (2), and absent (1). The scores wereaveraged over the users and applied to each category. In general, the applications testeddemonstrated great usability for users without disabilities, but scored poorly for users withdisabilities.Airports tested listed inalphabetical orderincluded: Amsterdam Copenhagen Dallas Fort Worth Dubai Fort Lauderdale Frankfurt Heathrow Miami Munich San Francisco Zurich

Section 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding Apps In general, the applications demonstrated great usabilityfor users without disabilities, but scored poorly for userswith disabilities. There are indoor and outdoor wayfinding apps that function well for a specific user group, e.g., vision loss,cognitive disability, reduced mobilityHowever, to date, no single application has beendeveloped that provides essential route informationuseful to all users.

Chapter 8 Wayfinding TechnologiesSection 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding APPS Provides a set of research-based guidelines for mobile app developers (e.g.,airlines, airports, third parties) to improve existing apps or create new ones Designed to maximize the utility and usability for all travelers, especially agingindividuals and travelers with disabilities Based on utility and usability testing of a prototype wayfinding app at ABIA andGeorgia Tech Relevant regardless of underlying positioning technology (e.g., beacons, WiFitrilateration, visible light, camera)

Chapter 8 Wayfinding TechnologiesSection 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding APPSThe mobile app guidelines consists of 19 criteria, e.g.: Design Your Application for a Wide Range ofDevices to Low Physical EffortExample of Do’s and Don’ts from Low Physical Effort8.3.4.9Provide Choice in Wayfinding Directions8.3.4.9Provide Choice in Wayfinding Directions8.3.4.11 Advanced PlanningMaximize accuracy by making buttons as largeas possible with sufficient space between them.Design userinteractions with theuser interface to beefficient andcomfortablewith a minimum offatigue

SUMMARYThe cumulative result of ACRP 177 will equipairports with the information they need tocreate a difference that creates achange that promotes Independent Travelfor aging travelers and persons withdisabilities


Today’s Participants Steve Wareham, Trillion Aviation,[email protected] Deborah Jue, Wilson Ihrig, [email protected] Richard Carman, Wilson Ihrig, [email protected] Joel Lewitz, Joel Lewitz, [email protected] Jim Harding, Gresham, Smith and Partners,jim [email protected] Laurel Van Horn, Open Doors Organization,[email protected]

Panelists webinars/171213.pdfAfter the webinar, you

Joel Lewitz – Audiovisual Consultant Presenting Report 175: Improving Intelligibility of Airport . Chips Davis Designs . Chips Davis . Presenters Richard A. Carman, PhD, PE Principal Investigator Emeritus Senior Principal, Wilson Ihrig Deborah A. Jue