CONTENTSA NOTE TO INSTRUCTORSCHAPTER 1xxiWHAT TO LOOK FOR1Looking for Quarrels 1The Structure of This Book 2The Impact of the Past 3 The Pive Crises of Nation Building 5The Key Institutions 6 Left, Right, and Center 6 What about Names and Dates? 7Political Attitudes 8 Parliamentary versus Presidential Systems 9 The CivicCulture Study 10 What Is "Ideology"? 11Patterns of Interaction 12 The Politics of Social Cleavages 13 How Important Is the EuropeanUnion? 14What People Quarrel About 15 The Importance of Being Comparative 16Vocabulary Building 16Further Reference 17PARTIGREAT BRITAINCHAPTER 219BRITAIN: THE IMPACT OF THE PAST20 The United Kingdom 21 Britain's French Legacy 22Magna Carta 22 The Common Law 23The Rise of Parliament 23iii

ivCONTENTSHenry VIII 24Parliament versus King 25 Premature Democrats 25 Acton's Dictum 26Cromwell's Commonwealth 26The "Glorious Revolution" 26The Rise of the Prime Minister 27The Democratization of Parliament 27 Conservative Geniuses: Burke and Disraeli 29The Rise of the Welfare State 29 Comparing: The Genesis of Two Welfare States30Vocabulary Building 31Further Reference 31CHAPTER 3BRITAIN: THE KEY INSTITUTIONS32The Monarch 32 Comparing: The Last Political Monarch34The Cabinet 34 The Queen Chooses a New Prime Minister35The Prime Minister 37 Tony Blair: A British Clinton? 37The Commons 38 The Deceptive No. 10 Downing Street39fHow the Commons Works 40 How Much Are Parliamentarians Paid? 40 What to Do with Lords? 42The Parties 43 Two-Party Systems: Variations on a British Theme 43Vocabulary Building 45Further Reference 45CHAPTER 4BRITISH POLITICAL ATTITUDES46"Public" Schools 47 What to Do with "Public" Schools? 47"Oxbridge" 48Class and Voting 48The Deferential British? 49 The 1997 Elections: Class Plus Region50British Civility 50Pragmatism 51 Football Hooliganism51 The Shape of the British Electorate 52

CONTENTSTraditions and Symbols 53Legitimacy and Authority 53The Ulster Ulcer 54 The IRA: Ballots and Bullets 55A Changing Political Culture 55Vocabulary Building 56Further Reference 56CHAPTER 5BRITAIN: PATTERNS OF INTERACTION57 1997: Finally, Labour 58National and Local Party 58Politics within the Parties 59 The Struggle of the Liberal Democrats 60 Saving Labour from theUnions 61 The "Poll Tax" Issue 62Parties and Interest Groups 62The Parties Face Each Other 63 The Profumo Scandal 64The Cabinet and the Civil Servants 64 The Utility of Dignity 65 Treasury: The Real Power 66The Civil Service and Interest Groups 66What about Democracy? 67Vocabulary Building 68Further Reference 68 CHAPTER 6WHAT BRITONS QUARREL ABOUT69The "British Disease" 69 "Pluralistic Stagnation" 70The Thatcher Cure 70 The Flip Side of the Welfare State 71 Comparing: The ProductivityRace 72 Comparing: Thatchernomics and Reaganomics 73 The Trouble with National Health 74Scottish and Welsh Nationalism 74 What to Do with Northern Ireland? 76British Racism 77Britain and Europe 78 Britain's Education Dilemma 79Great Britain or Little England? 80Vocabulary Building 80Further Reference 81

viCONTENTSPART II FRANCECHAPTER 783FRANCE: THE IMPACT OF THE PAST84The Roman Influence 84The Rise of French Absolutism 85 Great French Expressions: "Paris Is Worth a Mass"85Louis XrV: The High Point of Absolutism 86Why the French Revolution? 86 Great French Expressions: "L'etat, c'est moi" 86 Great FrenchExpressions: "Let Them Eat Cake" 87 Three French Geniuses: Voltaire,Montesquieu, Rousseau 88From Freedom to Tyranny 88 A Tale of Two Flags 89 The Original Chauvinist 90The Bourbon Restoration 90 A Theory of Revolution 91 Great French Expressions: "They LearnedNothing and They Forgot Nothing" 92The Third Republic 92Vichy: France Splits Again 93 The Dreyfus Affair 93The Fourth Republic 94Vocabulary Building 95Further Reference 95CHAPTER 8FRANCE: THE KEY INSTITUTIONS96A Semipresidential System 96 Parliamentary versus Presidential Systems 97 Great FrenchExpressions: Cohabitation 99 The Presidential Election of 1995 100Premier and Cabinet 100 A Gaullist Technocrat as President 101 Great French Expressions: "Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose" 103The National Assembly 103 Comparing: The Israeli Parliamentary System A Senate That Fights Back 105104The Party System 105 The Parliamentary Elections of 1997Supreme Court? 108A Decentralized Unitary System 108Vocabulary Building 109Further Reference 109106 Comparing: A French

CONTENTSCHAPTER 9viiFRENCH POLITICAL ATTITUDES111 How to Celebrate a 200-Year-Old Revolution 112Historical Roots of French Attitudes 112A Climate of Mistrust 113 "La Marseillaise" 113 Great French Expressions: "L'enfer, c'est lesautres" 114The Nasty Split 114 French and American Party Identification 115 Comparing: TheInstability of Split Societies 116School for Grinds 116 French Elections: The Persistence of Religion 117 French Elections:The Persistence of Region 118The "Great Schools" 118 How Would You Do on the "Bac"? 119 Rule of the Enarchs 120The Fear of "Face to Face" 120Freedom or Authority? 121 Comparing: French and American Press Conferences 121Social Class 122The Great Calming Down 122 Great French Expressions: "The Heart Is on the Left, but the Billfold Ison the Right" 123 The French Turn Centrist 124Vocabulary Building 125Further Reference 125CHAPTER 10FRANCE: PATTERNS OF INTERACTION126The Emerging Party System 127The Socialists and the Communists 127 The French Left: Smother Thy Brother 128The Gaullists and Republicans 129 Mitterrand Skunks Chirac 130 Balladur Upstages Mitterrand 131The Stalemate Cycle 131 The Events of May 1968 132Referendum Madness 133 Boring! Boring! No New Faces 135Fragmented Labor Unions 135 Business and the Bureaucracy 136 "Putting on the Slippers" 137The Eternal Bureaucracy 137 The Real Power: The Inspection 138Government by Bureaucracy 139

viiiCONTENTSVocabulary Building 139Further Reference 140CHAPTER 11WHAT THE FRENCH QUARREL ABOUT141 Nukes, French Style 142Big Guys versus Little Guys 142 The Poujadists: A Classic Flash Party 143The Nationalization Question 144 The Concorde: A Prestigious Dinosaur 145The Unemployment Horror 146 Comparing: Europe Adopts U.S.-Style Conservatism 146 Is There a VAT in Your Future? 147France's Racial Problem 148 The National Front: The Angry Party 149France's Education Problems 149The Covering Up of Things Past 150 Comparing: How U.S. and French Youth Handle the School Problem 150Vocabulary Building 151Further Reference 151PART IIICHAPTER 12GERMANY153GERMANY: THE IMPACT OF THE PAST154Who Are the Germans? 154The Fragmented Nation 155 The Changing Shape of Germany 156 Impressive German Words:Obrigkeit 158The Rise of Prussia 158German Nationalism 159 Impressive German Words: Machtstaat Impressive German Words:Volksgeist 160The Second Reich 160 Bismarck's Dubious Legacy 161 Impressive German Words:Kulturkampf 162The Catastrophe: World War I 162Republic without Democrats 163 Impressive German Words: Dolchstoss 163 The Horrors of PolarizedPluralism 164 Impressive German Words: Gleichschaltung 165 Impressive German Words: Lebensraum 166

CONTENTSixThe Third Reich 166 Might Have Been: The Plot to Kill HitlerFlags 168The Occupation 168Vocabulary Building 169Further Reference 169CHAPTER 13GERMANY: THE KEY INSTITUTIONS167 Another Tale of Two170The President 170 Impressive German Words: Bundesrepublik 171The Chancellor 171 Impressive German Words: Grundgesetz 172The Cabinet 172 Der Alte: Adenauer 173 Helmut Kohl: The Underestimated Chancellor 174The Bundestag 175 The Grand Coalition: A Dangerous Experiment 175The Constitutional Court 177 The Bundesrat: A Useful Upper House 178The Parties 178 Impressive German Words: Regierungsfahig 179 Comparing: Germany'sElectoral System: An Export Product 180A Split Electoral System 180 "You Have Two Votes": A German Ballot 181 1994: A Modified PRSystem in Action 182Vocabulary Building 183Further Reference 183CHAPTER 14GERMAN POLITICAL ATTITUDES184The Moral Vacuum 185 Impressive German Words: Gehorsamkeit 185 Impressive GermanWords: Vergangenheitsbewaltigung 186Forgetting the Past 186 TheRiseof'Postmaterialism"187 A German "Generation X"? 188The Generation Gap 188A New German Democracy 189 Germany's Nationalistic "New Right" 190The Disorienting Unification 190 Willy Brandt: A German Mr. Clean 191

CONTENTSThe End of Shell Shock 192 Impressive German Words: Politikverdrossenheit 193The German Political Elite 193The German Split Personality 194 Impressive German Words: Sehnsucht and Streben 194Vocabulary Building 195Further Reference 195CHAPTER 15GERMANY: PATTERNS OF INTERACTION196More Complex, Less Stable 196Parties and the Electorate 196 Germany's Possible Coalitions 197 The Shape of the GermanElectorate 198 Unhappy on the Left: The Jusos 199The Chancellor and the Electorate 200 Thunder on the Right: CSU 200German Dealignment? Impressive German Words: Weltanschauung 201German Dealignment? 201 The "Catchall" Party 202 Movable Mayors 203The Bundestag and the Citizen 203The Union-Party Linkup 204 Boring! Boring! Politics without Passion 204 Impressive GermanWords: Spitzenverband 205The Lander and Berlin 206German Voting Patterns 207Vocabulary Building 208Further Reference 208CHAPTER 16WHAT GERMANS QUARREL ABOUT209The End of the Miracle 209 Impressive German Words: Wirtschaftswunder 210 Impressive GermanWords: Sozialmarkt 210 Impressive German Words:Mitbestimmung 211 Comparing: Who Wins the ManufacturingRace? 212How to Merge Two Economies 212 Impressive German Words: Ladenschlussgezetz 213 Could UnificationHave Come Gradually? 214 How to Handle the Euro? 216

CONTENTSxiHow Much Welfare? 217 Comparing: Running Out of Germans 217The Hood of Foreigners 218 Impressive German Words: Gastarbeiter 219 The StasiStain 220 Impressive German Words: Waldsterben 221A Fourth Reich? 221Vocabulary Building 223Further Reference 223PART TV RUSSIACHAPTER 17225RUSSIA: THE IMPACT OF THE PAST226The Slavic People 226 Memorable Russian Slogans: "Moscow Is the Third Rome" 227Russian Autocracy 228Absolutism or Anarchy? 228 State Plus Church: "Caesaropapism" 229Forced Modernization 229Westernizers and Slavophiles 230From Frustration to Revolution 230 Premature Democrats: The Decembrists 231Marxism Comes to Russia 231 A Russian Genius: Lenin 232 One City, Three Names 233Curtain Raiser: The 1905 Revolution 234 Memorable Russian Slogans: "Bread, Land, Peace" 234 Kerensky: NiceGuys Lose 235World War I and Collapse 235 Memorable Russian Slogans: "All Power to the Soviets" 236 Why theOctober Revolution Was in November 237The Revolution and Civil War 237 Memorable Russian Slogans: "He Who Does Not Work, Neither Shall HeEat" 238War Communism and NEP 238 Yet Another Tale of Two Flags 239 Stalin: "One Death Is a Tragedy;a Million Is a Statistic" 240Vocabulary Building 242Further Reference 242

xiiCONTENTSCHAPTER 18RUSSIA: THE KEY INSTITUTIONS243The Stalin System 243 Memorable Russian Slogans: "The Communist Party Is Not a Party LikeOther Parties" 244 Government in a Fortress 245The New System 247 The KGB 247 1991: The Coup That Failed 248 Yeltsin: ACautious Reformer 250 2993: The Second Coup ThatFailed 251 Russia's 1996 Presidential Elections 252 The RussianElections of 1995: A Fragmented Party System 253The Persistence of Pattern 254 The Once and Future KGB254Vocabulary Building 255Further Reference 255CHAPTER 19RUSSIAN POLITICAL ATTITUDES256The Russian Difference 256 Huntington's "Civilizational" Divide in Europe 257 Solzhenitsyn:Russian Mysticism 258The Mask of Legitimacy 259The Illusion of Ideology 259 How to Build a Civil Society: The Philosophical Gap 260The Rediscovery of Civil Society 261 How to Build a Civil Society: The Moral Gap 262Natural Egalitarians? 262Russian Racism 263 How to Build a Civil Society: The Economic Gap 264Can a Democratic Political Culture Be Learned? 264 How to Build a Civil Society: The Legal Gap 265Vocabulary Building 266Further Reference 266CHAPTER 20RUSSIA: PATTERNS OF INTERACTION267Reformers versus Conservatives 267 Khrushchev: The First Reformer 268 Totalitarian versus Authoritarian 270President versus Parliament 270 Gorbachev: "Life Punishes Those Who Delay" 271 Centrist Reformer:Prime Minister Chernomyrdin 272 Comparing: The Timing ofReforms 273

xiiiCONTENTSThe Mafia 274 Remembering the Marshal 274The Army 275 The Next Russian Strongman? Ex-General Lebed 276Vocabulary Building 277Further Reference 277CHAPTER 21WHAT RUSSIANS QUARREL ABOUT278Why the Soviet Union Collapsed 278How to Reform? 279 Economic Goods versus Economic Bads 279The Pace and Pain of Economic Reform 280 Why Did We Fail to Anticipate? 281 Lacking Facts, TheyTheorized 282Recover the Lost Republics? 283 The Terminology of Economic Reform 284 The Horror ofChechnya 285 Comparing: Yugoslavia: A Miniature Soviet Union? 286A Middle Way for Socialism? 287S The Horror of Russian Health 287 Comparing: Scandinavian-TypeSocialism for the Soviet Union ? 288Which Way Russia? 288Vocabulary Building 289Further Reference 289PARTVJAPANCHAPTER 22291JAPAN: THE IMPACT OF THE PAST292Japanese Feudalism 293 Comparing: The Uniqueness Trap 293 Comparing: Japan andBritain 294The European Jolt 294The Forced Entry 295The 1868 Meiji Restoration 296 The Japanese Model of Industrialization? 297The Path to War 297The Great Pacific War 298 The United States and Japan: Collision in the Pacific 299 JapaneseUnderstatement: "The War Has Not Gone So Well" 300

xivCONTENTSUp from the Ashes 300Vocabulary Building 301Further Reference 301CHAPTER 23JAPAN: THE KEY INSTITUTIONS302The Monarchy 302The Diet 302 Comparing: Deference to MonarchsDiet 304303 A Woman Speaker for Japan'sPrime Minister 305 Fill in the Blanks: A Generic Prime Minister 307Parties 307 Comparing: The LDP and Italy's DC308Japan's Electoral System 309 The 1996 Elections: A New Hybrid System in Action 310The Ministries 311Japanese Territorial Organization 312Vocabulary Building 313Further Reference 313CHAPTER 24JAPANESE POLITICAL ATTITUDES314 Comparing: Guilt versus Shame 315 The United States and Japan:Destined to Misunderstand? 316The Cult of the Group 316 The United States and Japan: Managing Differences 318Education for Grinds 318 How Would You Do on a Japanese Exam? 319 Why Is Wa? 320Death of a Sarariman 320 The United States and Japan: The Minamata Pieta 321Political Suicide 322 Japanese Understatement: Sorry for the "Inconvenience" 322 The Honorof On 323The "New Human Race" 323 Comparing: Changing Political Cultures of Germany and Japan 324Vocabulary Building 324Further Reference 325

CONTENTSCHAPTER 25XVJAPAN: PATTERNS OF INTERACTION326Bureaucrats in Command 327 Japan's Major Interest Groups 327 Comparing: Bureaucratic Elites inFrance and Japan 328 The United States and Japan: An AmericanDITI? 329 The Big Three of Japanese Scandals 330Corruption Scandals 330 Comparing: Can "Money Politics" Be Broken? 331No One in Charge? 332The Dangers of Multiparty Coalitions 333 Plus qa Change: Who Is Really in Charge? 334The Hopes of Reform 335Vocabulary Building 336Further Reference 336VCHAPTER 26WHAT JAPANESE QUARREL ABOUT337The Japanese Economic Miracle 337 Japan Destroys the German Photo Industry 338The Secret of Japan's Success 338 Equality Works 340From Success to Failure 341 Japanese Understatement: "Japan Has a Trade Surplus" 341 PurchasingPower Parity 342 Silly Excuses to Exclude Foreign Goods 343 PoorMan's PPP: The Big Mac Index 344Should Japanese Live Better? 344Could Japan Turn Aggressive? 345 Repeal Article 9? 346A New Japan? 347 The Japanese Non-Welfare State 347Vocabulary Building 348Further Reference 348PART VI THE THIRD WORLD350 What Is the Third World? 352CHAPTER 27CHINA353The Impact of the Past 353A Traditional Political System 353

xviCONTENTSThe Long Collapse 355 Confucianism: Government by Right Thinking 355 Cyclical versusSecular Change 356From Empire to Republic 357The Communist Triumph 358 Mao and Guerilla War 359The Key Institutions 360The Soviet Parallel 360 Tandem Power: Mao and Zhou 361 The Invisible Puppeteer: DengXiaoping 362The Party 363The Army 363 Tandem Power Continues 364Chinese Political Attitudes 365Traditional Attitudes 365 Reverence for Age 366Nationalism 367Maoism 367 Slogans from the Cultural Revolution 368Concealed Anger 369 Big Lie and Little Whisper 369Patterns of Interaction 371Cycles of Upheaval 371Radicals and Moderates 371 The Great Leap Forward: "Twenty Years in a Day" 372 The GreatProletarian Cultural Revolution: "Bombard the Command Post" 373Chinese Liberal and Conservative Politics 374The Underlying Problem 375 Anti-Western Campaigns 375 The Tienanmen Massacre 376What Chinese Quarrel About 377A Market Economy for China? 377 The Trouble with Markets 378A Middle Way for the Middle Kingdom? 379 How Many Chinese? 380Do Markets Lead to Democracy? 381 The Hong Kong Problem 382Dissent and Democracy 383Vocabulary Building 383Further Reference 384

xviiCONTENTSCHAPTER 28BRAZIL385The Impact of the Past 385The Portuguese Influence 385A Painless Independence 387From Empire to Republic 388The Old Republic 389 "Order and Progress" 389 The Addiction of Statism 390Vargas's "New State" 390The Rise and Fall of Jango Goulart 391The Key Institutions 392The Military as Political Institution 392 Brazil's Powerful Military School 393 The President Who NeverWas 394The Presidency 394 Comparing: Spain Turns Democratic 395A New Democratic Constitution 396An Emerging Party System 396 The 1994 Election: The Inflation Connection 397A Lack of Institutions 398Brazilian Political Attitudes 399The Easygoing Image 399 Personalismo and Machismo 400Brazilian Racism 400 Comparing: Apartheid, Brazilian Style 401Brazil's Poor: Passive or Explosive? 402 Marginals in Brazil's Favelas 402Uneven Democratic Attitudes 403 Latin America's Changing Leftists 404Patterns of Interaction 405An Elite Game 405The Mobilization-Demobilization Cycle 405 Political Mobilization, Brazilian Style 406The Inflation Connection 407 "Praetorianism" 407 Brazil's Desperate Struggle against Inflation 408The Corruption Connection 408Resurgent Interest Groups 409 The Brazilian Political Cycle 409The Church as Opposition 410

CONTENTS Chico Mendes: Another Death in the Amazon 411What Brazilians Quarrel About 412How to Make a Second Brazilian Miracle 412 "They Got an Awful Lot of Everything in Brazil" 412 Headed forExtinction: Brazil's Indians 413Brazil's State Capitalism 413 Great Brazilian Wisecracks 414 Great Brazilian Wisecracks 415Growth for Whom? 415The Population Problem 416Will Brazilian Democracy Last? 417 Crime and Punishment, Brazilian Style 417Vocabulary Building 418Further Reference 418CHAPTER 29SOUTH AFRICA420The Impact of the Past 420The Great Trek 421 South Africa's Population (in Millions) 422 Dingaan's Kraal: StillRemembered 423The Boer War 423From Defeat to Victory 424 Why Did Apartheid End? 425The Key Institutions 426System in Flux 426A Quasi-Presidential System 426 South African Might-Have-Been: The Black and Coloured Vote 427A Bicameral Parliament 427 Nelson Mandela: A President for All South Africans 428The Cabinet 429 Comparing: How to Reform an Unjust System? 430The Parties 431 A Constitutional Court for South Africa 431 Beware the Confusion:South Africa's Two "National" Parties 432 2994: A New ProportionalRepresentation System in Action 433 Home for Four MillionPeople? 434Farewell to the Homelands 435South African Political Attitudes 435The Africans 435The Afrikaners 436

CONTENTSxix From Euphoria to Dysphoria 436 A Lost Generation of AfricanYouth 437 Do Afrikaners Change? 438The English Speakers 438The Browns 439 South African Might-Have-Been: If the English Had Retained Power 439Patterns of Interaction 440Politics within the ANC 440 Why Do Plural Societies Cohere? "Cross-Cutting Cleavages" 441The ANC and the Whites 441 Why Do Plural Societies Cohere? "Consociational Democracy" 442The ANC versus Inkatha 443 South Africa's Bloodshed: Whose Fault? 443 New Player:COSATU 444An Emerging Party System 444Harvest of Hatred 446What South Africans Quarrel About 446How to Manage a Revolution 446 How Much Truth Can South Africa Take? 447 Favelas in SouthAfrica? 448Capitalism for South Africa? 448The Brazilianization of South Africa? 449Which Way for South Africa? 450 A Separate KwaZulu? 450 Who Can Replace Mandela? 451Vocabulary Building 451Further Reference 452CHAPTER 30IRAN453The Impact of the Past 453The Arab Conquest 454Western Penetration 454The First Pahlavi 455 Comparing: Ataturk and Reza Shah 456The Last Pahlavi 457 The Big U.S. Mistake 457The Key Institutions 459A Theocracy 459 Iran's 1997 Presidential Election 460Iran's Executive 460Iran's Legislature 461

xxCONTENTS The Strange "Council of Guardians" 461Emerging Parties? 462A Partly Free System 463Iranian Political Attitudes 463 Is Islam Anti-Modern? 464 Is Islamic "Fundamentalism" the RightName? 466Islam as a Political Ideology 466Democracy and Authority 467 Are Iranians Religious Fanatics? 467 Islamic Modernization: TheSilencing of Soroush 468Persian Nationalism 468 Sunni and Shia 469Patterns of Interaction 470Religion as a Political Tool 470 Does Islam Discriminate against Women? 470Radicals and Moderates in Iran 471 The U.S. Embassy Takeover 472 Saudi Arabia: The NextIran? 473 Mullahs versus Bazaaris 474The Revolution Burns Out 475What Iranians Quarrel About 476Which Way for Iran's Economy? 476 How Many Iranians? 477 Open Letter to Americans: Don't Mess withIran 478The Veiled Debate on Islam 478 Open Letter to Iranians: Don't Mess with America 479 A Fatwa onRushdie 480What Kind of Foreign Policy? 480Do Revolutions End Badly? 481Vocabulary Building 482Further Reference 482CHAPTER 31GLOSSARYINDEX497LESSONS OF NINE COUNTRIES489483

A Russian Genius: Lenin 232 One City, Three Names 233 Curtain Raiser: The 1905 Revolution 234 Memorable Russian Slogans: "Bread, Land, Peace" 234 Kerensky: Nice Guys Lose 235 World War I and Collapse 235 Memorable Russian Slogans: "All Power to the Soviets" 236 Why the October Revolution Was in November 237