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3. ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND AUDITSyllabusEnergy Management & Audit: Definition, Energy audit- need, Types of energy audit,Energy management (audit) approach-understanding energy costs, Bench marking,Energy performance, Matching energy use to requirement, Maximizing systemefficiencies, Optimizing the input energy requirements, Fuel and energy substitution,Energy audit instruments3.1 Definition & Objectives of Energy ManagementThe fundamental goal of energy management is to produce goods and provide services withthe least cost and least environmental effect.The term energy management means many things to many people. One definition of energymanagement is:“The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits (minimizecosts) and enhance competitive positions”(Cape Hart, Turner and Kennedy, Guide to Energy Management Fairmont press inc. 1997)Another comprehensive definition is“The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as toreduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costsof producing the output from these systems”The objective of Energy Management is to achieve and maintain optimum energyprocurement and utilisation, throughout the organization and:To minimise energy costs / waste without affecting production & qualityTo minimise environmental effects.3.2Energy Audit: Types And MethodologyEnergy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision-making in the area of energymanagement. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identifyall the energy streams in a facility. It quantifies energy usage according to its discretefunctions. Industrial energy audit is an effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensiveenergy management programme.Bureau of Energy Efficiency57

3. Energy Management and AuditAs per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit is defined as “the verification,monitoring and analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containingrecommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an actionplan to reduce energy consumption”.3.2.1Need for Energy AuditIn any industry, the three top operating expenses are often found to be energy (both electricaland thermal), labour and materials. If one were to relate to the manageability of the cost orpotential cost savings in each of the above components, energy would invariably emerge as atop ranker, and thus energy management function constitutes a strategic area for costreduction. Energy Audit will help to understand more about the ways energy and fuel areused in any industry, and help in identifying the areas where waste can occur and wherescope for improvement exists.The Energy Audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction,preventive maintenance and quality control programmes which are vital for production andutility activities. Such an audit programme will help to keep focus on variations which occurin the energy costs, availability and reliability of supply of energy, decide on appropriateenergy mix, identify energy conservation technologies, retrofit for energy conservationequipment etc.In general, Energy Audit is the translation of conservation ideas into realities, by lendingtechnically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within aspecified time frame.The primary objective of Energy Audit is to determine ways to reduce energy consumptionper unit of product output or to lower operating costs. Energy Audit provides a “ benchmark” (Reference point) for managing energy in the organization and also provides the basisfor planning a more effective use of energy throughout the organization.3.2.2Type of Energy AuditThe type of Energy Audit to be performed depends on:- Function and type of industry- Depth to which final audit is needed, and- Potential and magnitude of cost reduction desiredThus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two types.i) Preliminary Auditii) Detailed Audit3.2.3 Preliminary Energy Audit MethodologyPreliminary energy audit is a relatively quick exercise to:Establish energy consumption in the organizationEstimate the scope for saving58Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditIdentify the most likely (and the easiest areas for attentionIdentify immediate (especially no-/low-cost) improvements/ savingsSet a ‘reference point’Identify areas for more detailed study/measurementPreliminary energy audit uses existing, or easily obtained data3.2.4 Detailed Energy Audit MethodologyA comprehensive audit provides a detailed energy project implementation plan for a facility,since it evaluates all major energy using systems.This type of audit offers the most accurate estimate of energy savings and cost. Itconsiders the interactive effects of all projects, accounts for the energy use of all majorequipment, and includes detailed energy cost saving calculations and project cost.In a comprehensive audit, one of the key elements is the energy balance. This is based onan inventory of energy using systems, assumptions of current operating conditions andcalculations of energy use. This estimated use is then compared to utility bill charges.Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases: Phase I, II and III.Phase I - Pre Audit PhasePhase II - Audit PhasePhase III - Post Audit PhaseA Guide for Conducting Energy Audit at a GlanceIndustry-to-industry, the methodology of Energy Audits needs to be flexible.A comprehensive ten-step methodology for conduct of Energy Audit at field level ispresented below. Energy Manager and Energy Auditor may follow these steps to start withand add/change as per their needs and industry types.59Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditTen Steps Methodology for Detailed Energy AuditStepNoPLAN OF ACTIONPURPOSE / RESULTSPhase I –Pre Audit PhaseStep 1 Plan and organiseWalk through AuditInformal Interview with Energy Manager, Production / Plant Manager Resource planning, Establish/organize aEnergy audit teamOrganize Instruments & time frameMacro Data collection (suitable to type ofindustry.)Familiarization of process/plant activitiesFirst hand observation & Assessment ofcurrent level operation and practicesStep 2 Conduct of brief meeting / awareness programme with all divisional heads and persons concerned (2-3 hrs.)Building up cooperationIssue questionnaire for each departmentOrientation, awareness creationStep 3Phase II –Audit Phase Primary data gathering, Process Flow Diagram, &Energy Utility Diagram Step 4Step 5 Conductmonitoring Conduct of detailed trials/experiments for selected energy guzzlerssurveyand 60Bureau of Energy EfficiencyHistoric data analysis, Baseline datacollectionPrepare process flow chartsAll service utilities system diagram(Example: Single line power distributiondiagram, water, compressed air & steamdistribution.Design, operating data and schedule ofoperationAnnual Energy Bill and energy consumptionpattern (Refer manual, log sheet, name plate,interview)Measurements :Motor survey, Insulation, and Lightingsurvey with portable instruments forcollection of more and accurate data.Confirm and compare operating data withdesign data.Trials/Experiments:- 24 hours power monitoring (MD, PF,kWh etc.).- Load variations trends in pumps, fan

3. Energy Management and Audit-compressors etc.Boiler/Efficiency trials for (4 – 8hours)Furnace Efficiency trialsEquipmentsPerformanceexperiments etcStep6 Analysis of energy use Energy and Material balance & energyloss/waste analysisStep 7 Identification anddevelopment of EnergyConservation (ENCON)opportunities Identification & Consolidation ENCONmeasuresConceive, develop, and refine ideasReview the previous ideas suggested by unitpersonalReview the previous ideas suggested byenergy audit if anyUse brainstorming and value chnology Cost benefit analysis Assess technical feasibility, economicviability and prioritization of ENCONoptions for implementationSelect the most promising projectsPrioritise by low, medium, long termmeasuresStep 8 Step9 Reporting & Presentation to the Top ManagementDocumentation, Report Presentation to thetop Management.Phase III –Post Audit phaseStep10 Implementation and Follow- Assist and Implement ENCON recommendationupmeasures and Monitor the low-up and periodic review61Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditPhase I –Pre Audit Phase ActivitiesA structured methodology to carry out an energy audit is necessary for efficient working. Aninitial study of the site should always be carried out, as the planning of the proceduresnecessary for an audit is most important.Initial Site Visit and Preparation Required for Detailed AuditingAn initial site visit may take one day and gives the Energy Auditor/Engineer an opportunityto meet the personnel concerned, to familiarize him with the site and to assess the proceduresnecessary to carry out the energy audit.During the initial site visit the Energy Auditor/Engineer should carry out the followingactions: Discuss with the site’s senior management the aims of the energy audit. Discuss economic guidelines associated with the recommendations of the audit. Analyse the major energy consumption data with the relevant personnel. Obtain site drawings where available – building layout, steam distribution, compressedair distribution, electricity distribution etc. Tour the site accompanied by engineering/productionThe main aims of this visit are: To finalise Energy Audit teamTo identify the main energy consuming areas/plant items to be surveyed during the audit.To identify any existing instrumentation/ additional metering required.To decide whether any meters will have to be installed prior to the audit eg. kWh, steam,oil or gas meters.To identify the instrumentation required for carrying out the audit.To plan with time frameTo collect macro data on plant energy resources, major energy consuming centersTo create awareness through meetings/ programmePhase II- Detailed Energy Audit ActivitiesDepending on the nature and complexity of the site, a comprehensive audit can take fromseveral weeks to several months to complete. Detailed studies to establish, and investigate,energy and material balances for specific plant departments or items of process equipmentare carried out. Whenever possible, checks of plant operations are carried out over extendedperiods of time, at nights and at weekends as well as during normal daytime working hours,to ensure that nothing is overlooked.The audit report will include a description of energy inputs and product outputs by majordepartment or by major processing function, and will evaluate the efficiency of each step ofthe manufacturing process. Means of improving these efficiencies will be listed, and at least apreliminary assessment of the cost of the improvements will be made to indicate the expectedpayback on any capital investment needed. The audit report should conclude with specificrecommendations for detailed engineering studies and feasibility analyses, which must thenbe performed to justify the implementation of those conservation measures that requireinvestments.62Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditThe information to be collected during the detailed audit includes: 1. Energy consumption by type of energy, by department, by major items of processequipment, by end-use2. Material balance data (raw materials, intermediate and final products, recycledmaterials, use of scrap or waste products, production of by-products for re-use in otherindustries, etc.)3. Energy cost and tariff data4. Process and material flow diagrams5. Generation and distribution of site services (eg.compressed air, steam).6. Sources of energy supply (e.g. electricity from the grid or self-generation)7. Potential for fuel substitution, process modifications, and the use of co-generationsystems (combined heat and power generation).8. Energy Management procedures and energy awareness training programs within theestablishment.Existing baseline information and reports are useful to get consumption pattern, productioncost and productivity levels in terms of product per raw material inputs. The audit teamshould collect the following baseline data:-Technology, processes used and equipment detailsCapacity utilisationAmount & type of input materials usedWater consumptionFuel ConsumptionElectrical energy consumptionSteam consumptionOther inputs such as compressed air, cooling water etcQuantity & type of wastes generatedPercentage rejection / reprocessingEfficiencies / yieldDATA COLLECTION HINTSIt is important to plan additional data gathering carefully. Here are some basic tips to avoidwasting time and effort: measurement systems should be easy to use and provide the information to the accuracythat is needed, not the accuracy that is technically possible measurement equipment can be inexpensive (flow rates using a bucket and stopwatch) the quality of the data must be such that the correct conclusions are drawn (what grade ofproduct is on, is the production normal etc) define how frequent data collection should be to account for process variations. measurement exercises over abnormal workload periods (such as startup and shutdowns) design values can be taken where measurements are difficult (cooling water through heatexchanger)DO NOT ESTIMATE WHEN YOU CAN CALCULATEDO NOT CALCULATE WHEN YOU CAN MEASURE63Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditDraw process flow diagram and list process steps; identify waste streams and obviousenergy wastageAn overview of unit operations, important process steps, areas of material and energy use andsources of waste generation should be gathered and should be represented in a flowchart asshown in the figure below. Existing drawings, records and shop floor walk through will helpin making this flow chart. Simultaneously the team should identify the various inputs &output streams at each process step.Example: A flowchart of Penicillin-G manufacturing is given in the figure3.1 below. Notethat waste stream (Mycelium) and obvious energy wastes such as condensate drained andsteam leakages have been identified in this flow chartThe audit focus area depends on several issues like consumption of input resources, energyefficiency potential, impact of process step on entire process or intensity of waste generation/ energy consumption. In the above process, the unit operations such as germinator, prefermentor, fermentor, and extraction are the major conservation potential areas identified.PENICILLIN-G FERMENTATIONEnergyRaw MaterialSteam, Air, Cooling waterChilled waterSeed InoculationGERMINATORRaw MaterialCondensateSteam, Air, Cooling waterChilled waterPREFERMENTORSteam LeakCondensateSteam, Air, Cooling waterChilled waterRaw MaterialFERMENTORRaw MaterialCondensateNON FILTEREDBROTH TANKChilled BrineCompressed Air, TreatedWater, Raw WaterFILTER PRESSMother liquor to ExtractionSteam, Air, Cooling waterChilled water, BrineCondensateEXTRACTIONPenicillin-GFigure 3.164Bureau of Energy EfficiencyMyceliumto ETPWasteStreamImpurities withWasteWater to ETPStream

3. Energy Management and AuditIdentification of Energy Conservation OpportunitiesFuel substitution: Identifying the appropriate fuel for efficient energy conversionEnergy generation :Identifying Efficiency opportunities in energy conversionequipment/utility such as captive power generation, steam generation in boilers, thermic fluidheating, optimal loading of DG sets, minimum excess air combustion with boilers/thermicfluid heating, optimising existing efficiencies, efficienct energy conversion equipment,biomass gasifiers, Cogeneration, high efficiency DG sets, etc.Energy distribution: Identifying Efficiency opportunities network such as transformers,cables, switchgears and power factor improvement in electrical systems and chilled water,cooling water, hot water, compressed air, Etc.Energy usage by processes: This is where the major opportunity for improvement and manyof them are hidden. Process analysis is useful tool for process integration measures.Technical and Economic feasibilityThe technical feasibility should address the following issues Technology availability, space, skilled manpower, reliability, service etcThe impact of energy efficiency measure on safety, quality, production or process.The maintenance requirements and spares availabilityThe Economic viability often becomes the key parameter for the management acceptance.The economic analysis can be conducted by using a variety of methods. Example: Pay backmethod, Internal Rate of Return method, Net Present Value method etc. For low investmentshort duration measures, which have attractive economic viability, simplest of the methods,payback is usually sufficient. A sample worksheet for assessing economic feasibility isprovided below:Sample Worksheet for Economic FeasibilityName of Energy Efficiency Measure1. Investment 2.Annual operating costs3. Annual savingsCost of capital Thermal EnergyMaintenance Electrical EnergyManpower Raw materialEnergy Waste disposalDepreciationNet Savings /Year (Rs./year)Payback period in months (Annual savings-annual operating costs) (Investment/net savings/year) x 12EquipmentsCivil worksInstrumentationAuxiliaries Classification of Energy Conservation MeasuresBased on energy audit and analyses of the plant, a number of potential energy saving projectsmay be identified. These may be classified into three categories:65Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and Audit1. Low cost – high return;2. Medium cost – medium return;3. High cost – high returnNormally the low cost – high return projects receive priority. Other projects have to beanalyzed, engineered and budgeted for implementation in a phased manner. Projects relatingto energy cascading and process changes almost always involve high costs coupled with highreturns, and may require careful scrutiny before funds can be committed. These projects aregenerally complex and may require long lead times before they can be implemented. ReferTable 3.1 for project priority guidelines.TABLE 3.1PriorityA - GoodB -May beC -HeldD -NoPROJECT PRIORITY GUIDELINEEconomicalFeasibilityWell defined andattractiveWell defined and onlymarginally acceptablePoorly defined andmarginally unacceptableClearly not attractiveTechnicalFeasibilityExisting technologyadequateExisting technologymay be updated,lack of confirmationExisting technologyis inadequateNeed majorbreakthroughRisk /FeasibilityNo Risk/Highly feasibleMinor operatingrisk/May befeasibleDoubtfulNot feasible3.3 Energy Audit Reporting FormatAfter successfully carried out energy audit energy manager/energy auditor should report tothe top management for effective communication and implementation. A typical energyaudit reporting contents and format are given below. The following format is applicable formost of the industries. However the format can be suitably modified for specificrequirement applicable for a particular type of industry.66Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditReport onDETAILED ENERGY AUDITTABLE OF CONTENTSi. Acknowledgementii. Executive SummaryEnergy Audit Options at a glance & Recommendations1.0 Introduction about the plant1.1 General Plant details and descriptions1.2 Energy Audit Team1.3 Component of production cost (Raw materials, energy, chemicals,manpower, overhead, others)1.4 Major Energy use and Areas2.0 Production Process Description2.1 Brief description of manufacturing process2.2 Process flow diagram and Major Unit operations2.3 Major Raw material Inputs, Quantity and Costs3.0 Energy and Utility System Description3.1List of Utilities3.2Brief Description of each eamWaterCompressed airChilled waterCooling water67Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and Audit4.0Detailed Process flow diagram and Energy& Material balance4.1 Flow chart showing flow rate, temperature, pressures of all inputoutput streams4.2 Water balance for entire industry5.0Energy efficiency in utility and process systems5.1 Specific Energy consumption5.2 Boiler efficiency assessment5.3 Thermic Fluid Heater performance assessment5.4 Furnace efficiency Analysis5.5 Cooling water system performance assessment5.6 DG set performance assessment5.7 Refrigeration system performance5.8 Compressed air system performance5.9 Electric motor load analysis5.10 Lighting system6.0Energy Conservation Options & Recommendations6.1List of options in terms of No cost/ Low Cost, Medium cost and highinvestment Cost, Annual Energy & Cost savings, and payback6.2Implementation plan for energy saving measures/ProjectsANNEXUREA1. List of Energy Audit WorksheetsA2. List of instrumentsA3. List of Vendors and Other Technical details68Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditThe following Worksheets (refer Table 3.2 & Table 3.3) can be used as guidance for energyaudit assessment and reporting.TABLE 3.2S.No.SUMMARY OF ENERGY SAVING RECOMMENDATIONSEnergy SavingRecommendationsAnnualAnnualEnergy (Fuel Savings(Rs.Lakhs)&Electricity)Savings(kWh/MT(or) od1234TotalTABLE 3.3 TYPES AND PRIORITY OF ENERGY SAVING MEASURESAnnualType of EnergyAnnualSavingsPrioritySaving OptionsElectricity/Fuel savingskWh/MT (or)kl /MTANo keepingLow Investment(Short toMedium Term)-C-ControlsEquipmentModificationProcess changeHigh Investment(Long Term)Energy e69Bureau of Energy Efficiency(Rs. Lakhs)

3. Energy Management and AuditReporting Format for Energy Conservation RecommendationsA: Title of Recommendation:B: Description of Existing Systemand its operation:C: Description of Proposed systemand its operation:D: Energy Saving CalculationsCapacity of main cooling towerTemp across cooling tower (design)Present capacityTemperature across coolingtower(operating)% loading of main cooling towerCapacity of DG Set cooling towerTemp across the towerHeat Load (240x1000 x 1x 5)Power drawn by the DG setcooling towerNo of pumps and its ratingNo of fans and its ratingPower [email protected] 80% loadAdditional power required for maincooling tower for additional waterflow of 240m3/h (66.67 l/s) with 6kg/cm2Net Energy savingsE: Cost BenefitsAnnual Energy Saving PotentialAnnual Cost SavingsInvestment (Only cost of piping)Simple Pay back PeriodCombine DG set cooling tower with maincooling towerMain cooling tower is operating with 30% of itscapacity. The rated cooling water flow is 5000m3/hr.Two cooling water pumps are in operationcontinuously with 50% of its rated capacity. Aseparate cooling tower is also operating for DGset operation continuously.The DG Set cooling water flow is only 240 m3/h.By adding this flow into the main cooling tower,will eliminate the need for a separate coolingtower operation for DG set, besides improvingthe %loading of main cooling tower. It issuggested to stop the DG set cooling toweroperation.3 5000 m / hr8 oC3000 m3/hr4 oC (3000 x 4)/(5000 x 8) 30%240 m3/hr5oC1200,000 K.Cal/hr 2 nos x 7.5 kW2 Nos x 22 kW(22 x2 7.5 x2) x.80 47 kW(66.67 x 6) / (102 x 0.55) 7 kW 47 – 7 40 kW 40kWx 8400hr 3,36,000 Units/Year3,36,000 xRs.4.00 Rs.13.4 Lakh per yearRs 1.5LakhsLess than 2 months70Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and Audit3.4Understanding Energy CostsUnderstanding energy cost is vital factor for awareness creation and saving calculation. Inmany industries sufficient meters may not be available to measure all the energy used. Insuch cases, invoices for fuels and electricity will be useful. The annual company balancesheet is the other sources where fuel cost and power are given with production relatedinformation.Energy invoices can be used for the following purposes:They provide a record of energy purchased in a given year, which gives a base-line forfuture referenceEnergy invoices may indicate the potential for savings when related to productionrequirements or to air conditioning requirements/space heating etc.When electricity is purchased on the basis of maximum demand tariffThey can suggest where savings are most likely to be made.In later years invoices can be used to quantify the energy and cost savings made throughenergy conservation measuresFuel CostsA wide variety of fuels are available forthermal energy supply. Few are listedbelow: Fuel oil Low Sulphur Heavy Stock (LSHS) Light Diesel Oil (LDO) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) COAL LIGNITE WOOD ETC.Coal18%Power36%Lignite4%LECO fines30%HSD1%Furnace Oil11%Total Energy Bill - Rs. 6 Crores/annumUnderstanding fuel cost is fairly simple andit is purchased in Tons or Kiloliters.Figure 3.2:Annual energy billAvailability, cost and quality are the mainthree factors that should be considered while purchasing. The following factors should betaken into account during procurement of fuels for energy efficiency and economics. Price at source, transport charge, type of transport Quality of fuel (contaminations, moisture etc) Energy content (calorific value)Power CostsElectricity price in India not only varies from State to State, but also city to city andconsumer to consumer though it does the same work everywhere. Many factors are involvedin deciding final cost of purchased electricity such as: Maximum demand charges, kVA(i.e. How fast the electricity is used? )71Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and Audit Energy Charges, kWh(i.e., How much electricity is consumed? )TOD Charges, Peak/Non-peak period(i.e. When electricity is utilized ?)Power factor Charge, P.F(i.e., Real power use versus Apparent power use factor )Other incentives and penalties applied from time to timeHigh tension tariff and low tension tariff rate changesSlab rate cost and its variationType of tariff clause and rate for various categories such as commercial, residential,industrial, Government, agricultural, etc.Tariff rate for developed and underdeveloped area/StatesTax holiday for new projectsExample: Purchased energy BillA typical summary of energy purchased in an industry based on the invoicesTable 3.4Type of energyElectricityFuel oilCoalTotalOriginal units5,00,000 kWh200 kL1000 tonsUnit CostRs.4.00/kWhRs.10,000/ kLRs.2,000/tonMonthly Bill ly the different forms of energy are sold in different units e.g. kWh of electricity,liters of fuel oil, tonne of coal. To allow comparison of energy quantities these must beconverted to a common unit of energy such as kWh, Giga joules, kCals etc.Electricity(1 kWh) 860 kCal/kWh (0.0036 GJ)Heavy fuel oil (Gross calorific value, GCV) 10000 kCal/litre ( 0.0411 GJ/litre)Coal (Gross calorific value, GCV) 4000 kCal/kg( 28 GJ/ton)3.5 Benchmarking and Energy PerformanceBenchmarking of energy consumption internally (historical / trend analysis) and externally(across similar industries) are two powerful tools for performance assessment and logicalevolution of avenues for improvement. Historical data well documented helps to bring outenergy consumption and cost trends month-wise / day-wise. Trend analysis of energyconsumption, cost, relevant production features, specific energy consumption, help tounderstand effects of capacity utilization on energy use efficiency and costs on a broaderscale.72Bureau of Energy Efficiency

3. Energy Management and AuditExternal benchmarking relates to inter-unit comparison across a group of similar units.However, it would be important to ascertain similarities, as otherwise findings can be grosslymisleading. Few comparative factors, which need to be looked into while benchmarkingexternally are: Scale of operation Vintage of technology Raw material specifications and quality Product specifications and qualityBenchmarking energy performance permits Quantification of fixed and variable energy consumption trends vis-à-vis productionlevels Comparison of the industry energy performance with respect to various productionlevels (capacity utilization) Identification of best practices (based on the external benchmarking data) Scope and margin available for energy consumption and cost reduction Basis for monitoring and target setting exercises.The benchmark parameters can be: Gross production relatede.g.kWh/MT clinker or cement produced (cement plant)e.g.kWh/kg yarn produced (Textile unit)e.g.kWh/MT, kCal/kg, paper produced (Paper plant)e.g.kCal/kWh Power produced (Heat rate of a power plant)e.g.Million kilocals/MT Urea or Ammonia (Fertilizer plant)e.g.kWh/MT of liquid metal output (in a foundry) Equipment / utility relatede.g.kW/ton of refrigeration (on Air conditioning plant)e.g.% thermal efficiency of a boiler plante.g.% cooling tower effectiveness in a cooling towere.g.kWh/NM3 of compressed air generatede.g.kWh /litre in a diesel power generation plant.While such benchmarks are referred to, related crucial process parameters need mentioningfor meaningful comparison among peers. For instance, in the above case: For a cement plant – type of cement, blaine number (fineness) i.e. Portland andprocess used (wet/dry) are to be reported alongside kWh/MT figure.For a textile unit – average count, type of yarn i.e. polyester/cotton, is to be reportedalong side kWh/square meter.For a paper plant – paper type, raw material (recycling extent), GSM quality is someimportant factors to be reported along with kWh/MT, kCal/Kg figures.For a power plant / cogeneration plant – plant % loading, condenser vacuum, inletcooling water temperature, would be important factors to be mentioned alongside heatrate (kCal/kWh).For a fertilizer plant – capacity utilization(%) and on-stream factor are two inputsworth comparing while m

3.2.2 Type of Energy Audit The type of Energy Audit to be performed depends on: - Function and type of industry - Depth to which final audit is needed, and - Potential and magnitude of cost reduction desired Thus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two types. i) Preliminary Audit ii) Detailed Audit 3.2.3 Preliminary Energy Audit .