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UNDERSTANDINGAND USING * ». „ENGLISHGRAMMARPDF Uploaded By:MyMahbub.Com

UNDERSTANDINGANDUSINGNGLISHGRAMMARThird EditionBetty Schrampfer Azar

Azar, Betty SchrampferUnderstanding and using English grammar / Betty Schrampfer Azar- - 3rd ed.p. cm.Includes index.ISBNO-13-958661-X1. English language—Textbooks for foreign speakers. 2. Englishlanguage—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. I. Title.PE1128.A97 199897-47425428.2'4- -dc21CIPPublisher: Mary Jane PelusoDevelopment Editor: Janet JohnstonAVP/Director of Production and Manufacturing: Aliza GreenblattExecutive Managing Editor: Dominick MoscoManaging Editor: Shelley HartleElectronic Production Editors: Christine Mann, Rachel BaumannElectronic Art Production Supervisor: Ken LiaoElectronic Publishing Specialist: Steven GreydanusArt Director: Merle KrumperCover & Interior Design: Eric DawsonManufacturing Manager: Ray KeatingIllustrator: Don Martinetti 1999 by Betty Schrampfer AzarPublished by Pearson Education10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606All rights reserved. No part of this book may bereproduced, in any form or by any means, withoutpermission in writing from the publisher.Printed with Corrections, July 1999Printed in the United States of America10O-lB-TSfibbl-X

In memoriamTo my wonderful parents,Frances Nies SchrampferandWilliam H. Schrampfer,who set me on my path.

CONTENTSPREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITIONxiiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSxvChapter 1OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES1-1 THE SIMPLETENSES1-2 THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES1-3 THE PERFECT TENSES1-4 THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES1-5 SUMMARY CHART OFVERBTENSES1-6 SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMSChapter 2PRESENT AND PAST, SIMPLE AND Chapter 3SIMPLE PRESENTPRESENT PROGRESSIVESTATIVEVERBSAM/IS/ARE BEING ADJECTIVEREGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBSREGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF -ED ENDINGSIRREGULAR VERBS: AN ALPHABETICAL LISTTROUBLESOME VERBS: RAISE/RISE, SET/SIT, LAY/LIESIMPLE PASTPAST PROGRESSIVEUSING PROGRESSF/E VERBS WITH ALWAYS TO COMPLAINUSING EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE WITH PROGRESSIVE VERBS131315171920222627283031PERFECT AND PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES3-13-23-33-4Chapter 42345610PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEPAST PERFECTPAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE36424547FUTURE TIME4-14-24-34-4SIMPLE FUTURE: WILL AND BE GOINGTOWILL vs. BE GOINGTOEXPRESSING THE FUTURE INTIME CLAUSESUSING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE SIMPLE PRESENTTO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME4-5 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE4-6 FUTURE PERFECT4-7 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE51525557606262VII

:;: co : -I . 53 CLAUSES OF TIME AND REVIEW OF VERB TENSES5-1 ADVERB CLAUSES OFTIME: FORM5-2 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOWTIME RELATIONSHIPS7072Chapter 6 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT6-1 FINAL -S/-ES: USE, PRONUNCIATION, AND SPELLING6-2 BASIC SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT6-3 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY6-4 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING THERE BE6-5 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: SOME IRREGULARITIES84888990. . . 92Chapter? GULARAND IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNSPOSSESSIVE NOUNSUSING NOUNS AS MODIFIERSCOUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNSNONCOUNT NOUNSSOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNSBASIC ARTICLE USAGEGENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEEXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITYUSING A FEW AND FEW; A LITTLE AND LITTLEUSING OF IN EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITYALL (OF) AND BOTH (OF)SINGULAR EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE, EACH, rs PRONOUNS8-1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS8-2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH GENERIC NOUNS ANDINDEFINITE PRONOUNS8-3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS8-4 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS8-5 USING YOU, ONE, AND THEY AS IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS8-6 FORMS OF OTHER8-7 COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH OTHER132134136138140142145Chapter 9 MODALS, PART 19-1 INTRODUCTION9-2 POLITE QUESTIONS WITH /ASTHE SUBJECT9-3 POLITE QUESTIONS WITH YOU ASTHE SUBJECT9-4 POLITE REQUESTS WITH WOULD YOU MIND9-5 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO9-6 LACK OF NECESSITY AND PROHIBITION: HAVE TO AND MUSTINTHE NEGATIVE9-7 ADVISABILITY: SHOULD, OUGHTTO, HAD BETTER9-8 THE PAST FORM OF SHOULD9-9 EXPECTATIONS: BE SUPPOSED TO9-10 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET'S, WHY DON'T, SHALL I/WE9-11 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: COULDvs. SHOULDVlii CONTENTS151152152153157158160163166169171

Chapter 10MODALS, PART 210-110-210-310-410-510-610-710-810-910-10Chapter 11DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENTTIMEDEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENTTIME NEGATIVEDEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PASTTIME,DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: FUTURETIMEPROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALSABILITY: CAN AND COULDUSING WOULDTO EXPRESS A REPEATED ACTION IN THE PASTEXPRESSING PREFERENCE: WOULD RATHERCOMBINING MODALS WITH PHRASAL MODALSSUMMARY CHART OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS176178181184188193195197198199THE PASSIVE11-1 FORMINGTHE PASSIVE11-2 USING THE PASSIVE11-3 INDIRECT OBJECTS USED AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS11-4 THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS AND PHRASAL MODALS11-5 STATIVE PASSIVE11-6 COMMON STATIVp PASSIVE VERBS PREPOSITIONS11-7 THE PASSIVE WITH GET11-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES208211213218225228232235Chapter 12 NOUN CLAUSES12-1 INTRODUCTION12-2 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD12-3 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF12-4 QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES12-5 NOUN CLAUSES'BEGINNING WITH THAT12-6 QUOTED SPEECH12-7 REPORTED SPEECH: VERB FORMS IN NOUN CLAUSES12-8 USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES12-9 USING -EVER WORDSChapter 13239240245247248251254263265ADJECTIVE -1113-1213-1313-1413-15INTRODUCTIONADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECTADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERBADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OFA PREPOSITIONUSUAL PATTERNS OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSESUSING WHOSEUSING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSESUSING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSESUSING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNSPUNCTUATING ADJECTIVE CLAUSESUSING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSESUSING NOUN OFWHICHUSING WHICH TO MODIFY AWHOLE SENTENCEREDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVEPHRASES: INTRODUCTIONCHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE 0CONTENTS JX

Chapter 14 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART pter 15GERUNDS: INTRODUCTIONUSING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONSCOMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDSCOMMONVERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDSGO GERUNDSPECIAL EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY -INGCOMMONVERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVESCOMMONVERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES OR GERUNDSREFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDSREFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVESIT INFINITIVE; GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES AS SUBJECTS297298299302303304307311318319323GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 215-115-215-315-415-515-615-7J5-815-9INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TOADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVESUSING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGHPASSIVE AND PAST FORMS OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDSUSING GERUNDS OR PASSIVE INFINITIVES FOLLOWING NEEDUSING A POSSESSIVE TO MODIFY A GERUNDUSING VERBS OF PERCEPTIONUSING THE SIMPLE FORM AFTER LFTAND HELPUSING CAUSATIVE VERBS: MAKE, HAVE, GET326328330331333334336338339Chapter 16 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS16-116-2PARALLEL STRUCTUREUSING PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS: BOTH. AND; NOT ONLY.BUT ALSO; EITHER .,. QR; NEITHER . NOR16-3 COMBINING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WITH COORDINATINGCONJUNCTIONS348353355Chapter 17 ADVERB CLAUSES17-1 INTRODUCTION17-2 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT17-3 EXPRESSING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT):USING EVENTHOUGH17-4 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREAS17-5 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB CLAUSES: /F-CLAUSES17-6 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOTAND EVEN IF17-7 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE ANDINTHE EVENTTHAT17-8 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS17-9 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IFChapter 18363366367368369370371REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYINGADVERBIAL PHRASES18-1 INTRODUCTION18-2 CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVpRBIAL PHRASES18-3 EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF "DURING THE SAME TIME"IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES18-4 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN MODIFYINGADVERBIAL PHRASES18-5 USING UPON -ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASESX CONTENTS359362374375376376380

I - a Dter 19CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT,CONTRAST, AND CONDITION19-1 USING BECAUSE OF AND DUETO19-2 USING TRANSITIONS TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT:THEREFORE AND CONSEQUENTLY19-3 SUMMARY OF PATTERNS AND PUNCTUATION19-4 OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT:SUCH. THAT AND SO. THAT19-5 EXPRESSING PURPOSE: USING SO THAT.19-6 SHOWING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT)19-7 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST19-8 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS: USING OTHERWISE AND OR (ELSE)19-9 SUMMARY OF CONNECTIVES: CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST,CONDITION:napter 20385387389391393395398401402CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES20-1 OVERVIEW OF BASIC VERB FORMS USED INCONDITIONAL SENTENCES20-2 TRUE INTHE PRESENT OR FUTURE20-3 UNTRUE (CONTRARYTO FACT) INTHE PRESENT OR FUTURE20-4 UNTRUE (CONTRARYTO FACT) INTHE PAST20-5 USING PROGRESSIVE VERB FORMS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES20-6 USING "MIXED TIME" IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES20-7 OMITTING IF20-8 IMPLIED CONDITIONS20-9 USING AS IF/AS THOUGH20-10 VERB FORMS FOLLOWING WISH20-11 USING WOULDTO MAKE WISHES ABOUTTHE FUTUREAppendix SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR UNITSUnit A: BASIC GRAMMAR TERMINOLOGYA-l SUBJECTS, VERBS, AND OBJECTSA-2 PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASESA-3 ADJECTIVESA-4 ADVERBSA-5 THEVERB BEA-6 LINKING VERBSUnit B: QUESTIONSB-l FORMS OF YES/NO AND INFORMATION QUESTIONSB-2 QUESTION WORDSB-3 SHORTENED YES/NO QUESTIONSB-4 NEGATIVE QUESTIONSB-5 TAG QUESTIONSUnit C: CONTRACTIONSUnitD: NEGATIVESD-l USING NOT AND OTHER NEGATWE WORDSD-2 AVOIDING DOUBLE NEGATIVESD-3 BEGINNING A SENTENCE WITH A NEGATIVE WORDUnit E: PREPOSITION COMBINATIONSEPREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH ADJECTIVES AND VERBSUnit F: CONNECTIVES TO GIVE EXAMPLES AND TO CONTINUE AN IDEAF-l CONNECTIVESTO GIVE EXAMPLESF-2 CONNECTIVESTO CONTINUETHE SAME IDEAUnit G: VERB FORM REVIEW EXERCISESINDEX.-413414415418. . . 18A20A20A21A24A26A26INDEX 1CONTENTS Xi

Preface to theThird EditionUnderstanding and Using English Grammar is a developmental skills text for intermediate toadvanced students of English as a second or foreign language. While focusing ongrammar, it promotes the development of all language skills in a variety of ways. Itfunctions principally as a classroom teaching text but also serves as a comprehensivereference text for students.The eclectic approach and abundant variety of exercise material remain the same as inthe earlier editions, but each new edition incorporates new ways and means. In particular: The communicative aspects of Understanding and Using English Grammar are morefully developed and explicit in the third edition. There are numerous "realcommunication" opportunities for the teacher to exploit. The text often uses thestudents' own life experiences as context and regularly introduces topics of interestto stimulate the free expression of ideas in structured as well as open discussions.The text supports the view of many experienced teachers that grammar-based andcommunicative approaches are not mutually exclusive, but rather mutuallysupportive, and can advantageously co-exist in the same language program, even inthe same class, even in the same lesson. Similarly, the interactive aspects of the text receive greater emphasis in the thirdedition. Many of the exercises formerly designated ORAL or ORAL (BOOKS CLOSED)are now reformatted to be more clearly available for pair work or group work, inaddition to still being viable as class work led by a teacher. This edition encouragesinteractivity but leaves it open for the users to decide what degree of interactivitybest suits their needs. There is now an even wider variety of exercise types. This edition has a largernumber of free-response exercises and open-ended communicative tasks, while stillproviding ample controlled-response exercises to aid initial understanding of theform, meaning, and usage of the target structures. It also includes more writingtopics, more speaking activities, expanded error analysis exercises, and additionalextended-context exercises. Long chapters have been broken into shorter units, and certain grammar units havebeen reorganized.The bird soaring upward and forward on the cover of this new edition is a swallow.Found throughout the world, swallows are joyful, playful, energetic birds whose comingsand goings announce changes in the seasons. Like the butterfly on the second edition, theswallow on this edition signals new beginnings—as student, teacher, and text writer cometogether in our shared journey toward the learning of a new language.xiii

Understanding and Using English Grammar is accompanied by a Workbook, consisting principally of selfstudy exercises for independent work. a Chartbook, a reference book consisting of only the grammar charts. an Answer Key, with the answers to the exercises. a Teacher's Guide, with teaching suggestions and additional notes on grammar, aswell as the answers to the exercises.The Azar Grammar Series consists of Understanding and Using English Grammar (blue cover) for upper-level students. Fundamentals of English Grammar (black) for mid-level students. Basic English Grammar (red) for lower or beginning levels.Supplementary works by other authors Fun with Grammar, a teacher resource text by Suzanne Woodward Azar Interactive, a CD-ROM program by Howard Beckermanwin

AcknowledgmentsThe second edition of UUEG was thoroughly reviewed by twenty-five ESL/EFL professionals.Their reviews were outstandingly helpful in their insights and suggestions. I studied thereviews with great care, and they greatly influenced the revision in matters large and small.I could not, unfortunately, make every change and addition that every reviewer sought (notwithout writing a 1000-page book—which my publisher would definitely frown upon!). Iwish to express my heartfelt thanks for the care and thought these colleagues put into theirreviews. They are Catherine Sajna, Hawaii Pacific University, English Foundations Program;Brian White, Lakeview Learning Center/ALSP; Anne Albarelli-Siegfried, North HarrisCommunity College; Akabi Danielan, Glendale Career College; M. Cristina Parsons,Pueblo High School; Peter Jarvis, Pace University; Cheri Boyer, University of Arizona,CESL; Molly Burns, Wisconsin ESL Language Institute; Molly McGrath, Hunter College,IELI; James Burke, El Paso Community College; Deborah Healey, Oregon State University,ELI; Dan Manolescu, Adelphi University, Berlitz on Campus Language Institute for English;Gerald Lee Boyd, Northern Virginia Community College; Karen Richelli-Kolbert,Manhattanville College, School of Education; Marjorie Friedman, Eckerd College, ELSLanguage Center; Natalie Gast, Customized Language Skills Training; Anna Krauthammer,Touro College; Russell Hirsch, Touro College; Stacy Hagen, Edmonds Community College,Intensive ESL; Lida Baker, University of California, Los-Angeles; Susan Kash-Brown,Southeast Community College.I have a topnotch professional support team. They allow me to do what I do withenjoyment and ease. Chief among them are Shelley Hartle, my managing editor, whosewide-ranging skills make her my indispensable right hand in all matters; Janet Johnston,publishing and wordsmithery expert par excellence, who cheerfully holds me to accountfor every dot and letter; Barbara Matthies, the teacher's guide co-author, who is my mostsplendid (i.e., toughest) critic; and our publisher, Mary Jane Peluso, who smooths ourpaths in myriad, much appreciated ways. In addition I wish to thank Robin Baliszewski,who as the new president of Prentice Hall Regents has brought a breath of fresh air andrenewed dedication to quality in ESL/EFL publication; Stella Reilly, especially for thesuperb job she did in collating the reviews; Christine Mann, who transformed our disk intoa beautifully and precisely formatted text; her colleague, Rachel Baumann; and also JulieAlexander, Aliza Greenblatt, Dom Mosco, Merle Krumper, and Eric Dawson.I also once again thank Don Martinetti, the illustrator, whose touches of whimsy are sodelightful. My appreciation also goes to graphic designer Christine Shrader, creator of theswallow that heralds this third edition.I wish to express special acknowledgment of the contributing writers for theUnderstanding and Using English Grammar Workbook, Second Edition: Rachel Spack Koch,Susan Jamieson, Barbara Andrews, and Jeanie Francis. Some of the exercise materialXV

originally created for the workbook has been woven into this third edition of the studentbook, and I thank them for the ways in which this material has enrichened the text.In addition, my thanks go to Tina Carver, Stacy Hagen, Mary Barratt, AyseStromsdorfer, Bonnie Arndt, Chelsea Azar, Rachel Flaherty, Nick Harris, Joy Edwards,Carolyn Cliff, Sue Van Etten, Patti Gulledge-White, R.T. Steltz, Buffy Cribbs, BruceMorrow, and in loving memory, Holly Turner. And finally, very special thanks to LarryHarris for his support, his strength, his joie de vivre — and for opening doors.XVIACKNOWLEDGMENTS

UNDERSTANDINGAND USINGENGLISHGRAMMARThird Edition

CHAPTERIOverview of Verb TensesCONTENTS1-11-21-3The simple tensesThe progressive tensesThe perfect tenses1-41-51-6The perfect progressive tensesSummary chart of verb tensesSpelling of -ing and -ed formsNote: Chapter 1 presents an overview of English verb tenses. The "tenses will be studied inmore detail in Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5.D EXERCISE 1. Introductions and interviews.Directions: Do one or more of the following activities.ACTIVITY A. Interview another student in your class. Take notes during the interview, andthen introduce this student to the rest of the class or to a small group of classmates.Possible topics for the interview follow. What questions might you ask to elicit thisinformation?1.2.3.4.5.namespelling of namecountry of originpresent residencelength of time in (this city or country),both past and future6.7.8.9.reason for coming herefield of study or workactivities in free timegeneral well-being andadjustment to living here10. comments on living hereACTIVITY B. Write a brief autobiographical paragraph telling who you are, what you havedone in the past two years, and what your plans are for the next two years. Then exchangeyour paper with a classmate. Ask each other questions to clarify your understanding andelicit further information.Next, join two other students to form a group of four. Tell the others in the groupabout the classmate whose paragraph you read.ACTIVITY C. Interview a classmate outside of class and write a biography of his/her life.ACTIVITY D. Interview a native speaker of English and write a biography of his/her life.ACTIVITY E. With a classmate, take a trip to a particular place, such as a museum, a theater,or a restaurant. Write a report of your excursion, or give an oral report to your classmates.

D EXERCISE 2. Overview of verb tenses. (Chapters 1 - 5)Directions: Pair up with a classmate.Speaker A: Your book is open. Ask a classmate a question using what a form of do(e.g., What are you doing? What did you do? What have you done?). Use thegiven time expressions.Speaker B: Your book is closed. Answer Speaker A's questions in complete sentences.Example: every morningSPEAKER A (book open): What do you do every morning?SPEAKER B (book closed): I (go to classes / eat breakfast / etc.) every morning.1.2.3.4.5.Switch roles.6. for the past five minutes7. tomorrow8. at (this exact time) tomorrow9. by the time you got here today10. by the time you go to bed tonightevery day before you leave homelast nightat (this exact time) yesterdayright nowsince you got up this morningThe diagram shown below will be used in the tense descriptions:past *-1 -1-» futureTHE SIMPLE TENSESTENSESIMPLE PRESENTEXAMPLESMEANING(a) It snows in Alaska.(b) Tom watches televisionevery day.In general, the simple presentexpresses events or situations thatexist always, usually, habitually; theyexist now, have existed in the past,and probably will exist in the future.SIMPLE PAST(c) It snowed yesterday.(d) Tom watched television lastnight.At one particular time in the past, thishappened. It began and ended in thepast.SIMPLE FUTURE(e) It will snow tomorrow.It is going to snow tomorrow.(f) Tom will watch televisiontonight.Tom is going to watch televisiontonight.At one particular time in the future, thiswill happen.x x x x x :2 CHAPTER 1

D EXERCISES. The simple tenses. (Chart 1-1)Directions: Answer the questions.1. Can you think of a "general truth"? What are some other general truths?2. What are some of the things you do every day or almost every day? Name threeactivities.3. What did you do yesterday? Name three separate activities.4. What are you going to do tomorrow?1-2THE PROGRESSIVE TENSESForm:be -ing (present participle)Meaning: The progressive tenses* give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time.The tenses say that an action begins before, is in progress during, and continues after another time oraction.PRESENT PROGRESSIVEo oo o(a) Tom is sleeping right now.It is now 11:00. Tom went to sleep at10:00 tonight, and he is still asleep.His sleep began in the past, is inprogress at the present time, andprobably will continue.PAST PROGRESSIVEo oo o(b) Tom was sleeping when Iarrived.Tom went to sleep at 10:00 last night.I arrived at 11:00. He was stillasleep. His sleep began before andwas in progress at a particular time inthe past. It continued after I arrived.FUTURE PROGRESSIVEO Oo o6 (c) Tom will be sleeping when wearrive.Tom will go to sleep at 10:00tomorrow night. We will arrive at11:00. The action of sleeping willbegin before we arrive, and it will bein progress at a particular time in thefuture. Probably his sleep willcontinue.*The progressive tenses are also called the "continuous" tenses: present continuous, past continuous, and future continuous.D EXERCISE 4. The progressive tenses. (Chart 1-2)Directions: Answer the questions.1. What are you doing right now? What are your classmates doing right now? What ishappening outside the classroom right now?2. Where were you at two o'clock this morning? What were you doing?3. Where will you be at two o'clock tomorrow morning? What will you be doing?Overview of Verb Tenses 3

1-3THE PERFECT TENSESForm:have past participleMeaning: The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event.PRESENT PERFECT(a) Tom has already eaten.Tom finished eating sometime beforenow. The exact time is not important.(b) Tom had already eaten when hisfriend arrived.First Tom finished eating. Later hisfriend arrived. Tom's eating wascompletely finished before another timein the past.(c) Tom will already have eatenwhen his friend arrives.First Tom will finish eating. Later hisfriend will arrive. Tom's eating will becompletely finished before another timein the future.X—(time?)PAST PERFECT*FUTURE PERFECTO3(j-Klea tK-Tom has already eaten.D EXERCISE 5. The perfect tenses. (Chart 1-3)Directions: Answer the questions.1. Have you eaten today? When did you eat?2. Had you eaten before you went to bed last night?3. Will you have eaten by the time you go to bed tonight?4 CHAPTER 1

1-4THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSESForm:have been -ing (present participle)Meaning: The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in progress immediately before, up to,until another time or event. The tenses are used to express the duration of the first event.PRESENT PERFECTPROGRESSIVE(a) Tom has been studying for twohours.Event in progress: studying.When? Before now, up to now,How long? For two hours.(b) Tom had been studying for twohours before his friend came.Event in progress: studying.When? Before another event in the past.How long? For two hours.(c) Tom will have been studyingfor two hours by the time hisfriend arrives.Event in progress: studying.When? Before another event in thefuture.How long? For two hours.2hrs.PAST PERFECTPROGRESSIVE2 hrs.'FUTURE PERFECTPROGRESSIVED EXERCISE 6. The perfect progressive tenses. (Chart 1-4)Directions: Answer the questions.1. What are you doing right now? How long have you been (doing that)?2. What were you doing last night at nine o'clock? What time did you stop (doing that)?Why did you stop (doing that)? How long had you been (doing that) before youstopped?3. What are you going to be doing at nine o'clock tomorrow night? What time are yougoing to stop (doing that)? Why? How long will you have been (doing that) before youstop?Overview of Verb Tenses 5

1-5SUMMARY CHART OF VERB TENSESSIMPLE PRESENTPRESENT PROGRESSIVEX X X X X )Tom studies every day.Tom is studying right now.SIMPLE PASTPAST PROGRESSIVETom studied last night.Tom was studying when they came.SIMPLE FUTUREFUTURE PROGRESSIVETom will study tomorrow.Tom will be studying when you come.6 CHAPTER 1

PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVETom has already studied Chapter One.Tom has been studying for two hours.PAST PERFECTPAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE-XX-Tom had already studied Chapter One before hebegan studying Chapter Two.Tom had been studying for two hours before hisfriends came.FUTURE PERFECTFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE-x—x-Tom will already have studied Chapter Four beforehe studies Chapter Five.Tom will have been studying for two hours by thetime his roommate gets home.Overview of Verb Tenses 7

D EXERCISE 7. Overview of verb tenses. (Charts 1-1 - 1-5)Directions: In the following dialogues, many of the verbs are in italics.* In pairs, in smallgroups, or as a class, discuss the meanings of the italicized verbs. Name the tenses of theseverbs. If you wish, draw diagrams like the ones in Chart 1-5.1. A: What do you do every morning?B: I take a bus to school.- The speakers are talking about habitual activities. The name of the tense is the simplepresent.2. A: What did you do last night?B: I watched a movie on television.3. A: What are you doing right now?B: I am working on English grammar.4. A: What were you doing at this time yesterday?B: At this exact time .yesterday, I was walking from the bookstore to the classroombuilding.5. A: Have you ever seen a comet?B: I've seen shooting stars, butI've never seen a comet.6. A: What will you do if you missthe bus tomorrow morning?B: I will walk to school.7. A: What will you be doing at thisexact moment tomorrow?B: At this exact time tomorrow, Iwill be attending my Englishclass.8. A: How long have you been working on this grammar exercise?B: I have been working on this grammar exercise for ten minutes.9. A: How long will you have been working on this exercise by the time you finish it?B: By the time I finish this exercise, I will have been working on it for fifteen minutes.10. A: What had you done by the time you got to class today?B: I had eaten lunch.11. A: What will you have done by the time you go to bed tonight?B: I will have finished my homework.12. A: Were you asleep when your friend called last night?B: Yes. I was sleeping when he called. I had been sleeping for almost an hour when thephone rang.*Words that are "italicized" or "in italics" have a slanted print. Regular print looks like this. Italic print lookslike this.8 CHAPTER 1

D EXERCISES. Overview of verb tenses. (Charts 1-1 -» 1-5)Directions: Practice using tenses by answering the questions in complete sentences, eitherorally (in pairs, in groups, or as a class) or in writing.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.What do you do every day?What did you do yesterday?What will you do tomorrow?What are you doing right now?What were you doing at this time yesterday?What will you be doing at this time tomorrow?What have you done since you got up this morning?What had you done before you went to bed last night?What will you have done by the time you go to bed tonight?What are you doing? How long have you been doing that?What were you doing before (name of the teacher) walked into the classroom today?How long had you been doing that?12. What will you be doing before (name of the teacher) walks into the classroomtomorrow? How long will you have been doing that?D EXERCISE 9. Error analysis: questions and negative verb forms.(Appendix Charts B-l, B-2, and D-l)Directions: This exercise covers question and negative verb forms you will be using in thefollowing chapters. Check your understanding of these forms by finding and correctingthe errors in the sentences below.*1. Does Pedro walks to work every morning?2. What you are talking about? I'm not understand you.3. Did you finished your work?4. My friend doesn't liking her apartment.5. Do you are working for this company?6. What time your plane did it arrive?7. How long have you are living in this city?8. My brother don't have no job right now.9. Ali wont to be in class tomorrow.10. I hadn't never saw snow before I moved to Canada last year.*For information about forming questions and negatives, see the Appendix, Units B-l (Forms of Yes/No andInformation Questions), B-2 (Question Words), and D-l (Using Not and Other Negative Words).Overview of Verb Tenses 9

D EXERCISE 10. Spelling pretest. (Chart 1-6)Directions: You will be using many verbs in their -ing and -ed forms in the followingchapters. Use this pretest to check yourself on spelling rules. Close your book. Onanother piece of paper, write the words that your teacher says.Example: (cry -ed)TEACHER:Cried. I cried because I was sad. Cried.WRITTEN RESPONSE: cried1.2.3.4.5.6.1-6(hope -ed)(dine -ing)(stop -ed)(plan -ing)(rain -ed)(wait -ing)1.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.(listen -ing)(happen -ed)(begin -ing)(occur -ed)(start -ing)(warn -ed)(enjoy -ed)(play -ing)(study -ing)(worry -ed)(die -ed)(lie -ing)SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMS(1) VERBS THATEND IN ACONSONANTAND -E(2) VERBS THATEND IN A VOWELAND A CONSONANT(a) hopedateinjure(b) -SYLLABLE VERBSstoppingstoppedrob

chapter 3 perfect and perfect progressive tenses 3-1 present perfect 36 3-2 present perfect progressive 42 3-3 past perfect 45 3-4 past perfect progressive 47 chapter 4 future time 4-1 simple future: will and be goingto 51 4-2 will vs. be goingto 52 4-3 expressing the future intime clauses 55 4-4 using the present progressive and the simple present