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William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/20106:28 P.M.MINITAB TutorialContents1.2.3.4.5.6.MINITAB Windows EnvironmentCreating a MINITAB Data Worksheet Readyfor AnalysisListing DataGraphing DataDescriptive Statistics and CorrelationsHypothesis Tests7.8.9.10.11.12.13.Simple Linear Regression and MultipleRegressionStepwise RegressionResidual Analysis and Influence DiagnosticsLogistic RegressionOne-Way Analysis of VarianceAnalysis of Variance for Factorial DesignsTime Series Forecasting1. MINITAB Windows EnvironmentUpon entering into a MINITAB session, you will see a screen similar to Figure 1.The bottom portion of the screen is an empty spreadsheet—called a MINITABworksheet—with columns representing variables and rows representing observations (or cases). The very top of the screen is the MINITAB main menu bar, withbuttons for the different functions and procedures available in MINITAB. Onceyou have entered data into the spreadsheet, you can analyze the data by clicking theappropriate menu buttons. The results will appear in the Session window.Figure 1 Initial screenviewed by MINITAB user1 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 1

William Mendenhall2both01.texV1 - 09/20/2010MINITAB Tutorial2. Creating a MINITAB Data Worksheet Readyfor AnalysisYou can create a MINITAB data file by entering data directly into the worksheet.Figure 2 shows the length-to-width ratio data for the BONES file analyzed inChapter 1. The variables (columns) can be named by typing in the name of eachvariable in the box below the column number.To access data already saved as a MINITAB file, select File on the main menubar, then Open Worksheet, as shown in Figure 3 In the resulting ‘‘Open Worksheet’’dialog box (see Figure 4), select the folder where the data file resides, then selectthe data set (e.g., CONDO). After clicking Open, the data will appear in thespreadsheet.Finally, if the data are saved in an external text file, access it by selecting Fileon the menu bar, click Other Files, then select Import Special Text (see Figure 5).The Import Special Text dialog box will appear, as shown in Figure 6. Specify thevariable (column) names, then click OK. On the resulting screen, specify the folderthat contains the external data file, click on the file name, then select Open. TheMINITAB worksheet will reappear with the data from the external text file.Reminder: The variables (columns) can be named by typing in the name of eachvariable in the box under the column number.3. Listing DataTo obtain a listing (printout) of your data, click on the Data button on the MINITABmain menu bar, then click on Display Data (see Figure 7). The resulting menu, orFigure 2 Data entered into theMINITAB worksheetFigure 3 Accessing a MINITAB data file 2012 Pearson Education Inc.6:28 P.M.Page 2

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Listing Data6:28 P.M.3Figure 4 MINITAB OpenWorksheet dialog boxFigure 5 MINITABoptions for accessing anexternal data filedialog box, appears as in Figure 8. Enter the names of the variables you want toprint in the Columns constants and matrices to display box (you can do this bysimply clicking on the variables), then click OK. The printout will be displayed inthe Session window. 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 3

William Mendenhall4MINITAB TutorialFigure 6 Import SpecialText dialog boxFigure 7 MINITAB menuoptions for listing dataFigure 8 Display Datadialog box 2012 Pearson Education Inc.both01.texV1 - 09/20/20106:28 P.M.Page 4

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Graphing Data6:28 P.M.54. Graphing DataTo obtain graphical descriptions of your data (e.g., bar charts, histograms, scatterplots, etc.), click on the Graph button on the MINITAB menu bar. The resultingmenu list appears as shown in Figure 9. Several of the options covered in this text are(bar) Chart, (scatter) Plot, Histogram, (normal) Probability Plot, and Stem-and-Leaf(display). Click on the graph of your choice to view the appropriate dialog box. Forexample, the dialog boxes for a histogram and scatterplot are shown, respectively,in Figures 10 and 11. Make the appropriate variable selections and click OK to viewthe graph.Figure 9 MINITAB menuoptions for graphing dataFigure 10 Histogram dialog boxes 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 5

William Mendenhall6both01.texV1 - 09/20/2010MINITAB TutorialFigure 11 Scatterplot dialog boxes5. Descriptive Statistics and CorrelationsTo obtain numerical descriptive measures for a quantitative variable (e.g., mean,standard deviation, etc.), click on the Stat button on the main menu bar, then clickon Display Descriptive Statistics (see Figure 12). The resulting dialog box appearsin Figure 13a.Select the quantitative variables you want to analyze and place them in theVariables box. (As an option, you can create histograms and dot plots for the databy clicking the Graphs button and making the appropriate selections.) Click on OKto view the descriptive statistics printout.To obtain Pearson product moment correlations for pairs of quantitative variables, click on the ‘‘Stat’’ button on the main menu bar, then click on Basic Statistics,and then click on ‘‘Correlation’’ (see Figure 12). The resulting dialog box appearsin Figure 13b. Enter the variables of interest in the Variables box, then click OK toobtain a printout of the correlations.Figure 12 MINITABmenu options forDescriptive Statistics 2012 Pearson Education Inc.6:28 P.M.Page 6

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Hypothesis Tests6:28 P.M.7Figure 13 Descriptive Statistics and Correlation dialog boxes6. Hypothesis TestsTo conduct tests of hypotheses of population parameters (e.g., means, variances,proportions), click on the Stat button on the MINITAB menu bar, then click onBasic Statistics. The resulting menu appears as shown in Figure 14. Click on theFigure 14 MINITABmenu options forhypothesis tests of means 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 7

William Mendenhall8both01.texV1 - 09/20/2010MINITAB TutorialFigure 15 One-Sample t-Test for Mean dialog boxestest of interest to view the appropriate dialog box, make the appropriate menuselections, and then click OK to view the results. For example, the dialog boxes for a1-Sample t-test for a population mean are shown in Figure 15. In Figure 15a, specifythe quantitative variable to be tested in the Variables box and the null hypothesisvalue in the Test mean box. To specify the confidence level for a confidence intervalfor the mean and to select the form of the alternative hypothesis, click on Optionsand make the selections as shown in Figure 15b. Click OK to return to the 1-Samplet dialog box (Figure 15a), then click OK again to view the test results.7. Simple Linear Regression and MultipleRegressionTo conduct a regression analysis of a general linear model, click on the Stat buttonon the MINITAB menu bar, then click on Regression, and click on Regression again,as shown in Figure 16. The resulting dialog box appears as shown in Figure 17.Figure 16 MINITABmenu options forRegression 2012 Pearson Education Inc.6:28 P.M.Page 8

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Regression6:28 P.M.9Figure 17 Regressiondialog boxSpecify the quantitative dependent variable in the Response box and theindependent variables in the Predictors box. (Note: If your model includes interactionand/or squared terms, you must create and add these higher-order variables to theMINITAB worksheet before running a regression analysis. You can do this byclicking the Calc button on the MINITAB main menu and selecting the Calculatoroption.)Optionally, you can get MINITAB to produce prediction intervals for futurevalues of the dependent variable and variance inflation factors by clicking theOptions button and checking the appropriate menu items in the resulting menulist. Residual plots are obtained by clicking the Graphs button and making theappropriate selections on the resulting menu. To return to the main Regressiondialog box from any of these optional screens, click OK. Click OK on the Regressiondialog box to view the linear regression results.As an alternative, you can fit general linear models by clicking on the Stat buttonon the MINITAB main menu bar, then click on Regression, and finally click onGeneral Regression (see Figure 16). The resulting dialog box appears in Figure 18.Figure 18 GeneralRegression dialog box 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 9

William Mendenhall10both01.texV1 - 09/20/20106:28 P.M.MINITAB TutorialSpecify the dependent variable in the Response box and the terms in themodel in the Model box. (Note: MINITAB will automatically create the appropriatenumber of dummy variables for each qualitative variable specified. Also, interactionterms are indicated by placing an asterisk between the variables that are to interact[e.g., LENGTH WEIGHT]. Similar notation is used for squared terms [e.g.,LENGTH*LENGTH].) Identify the qualitative independent variables in the modelby placing these variables in the Categorical Predictors box.To obtain parameter estimates for all terms in the model, click the Resultsbutton and make the appropriate selection. To save predicted values and residuals,click the Storage button and make the appropriate selections. To produce residualplots, click the Graphs button and make your selections. When all the options youdesire have been checked, click OK on the General Regression dialog box to viewthe multiple regression results.8. Stepwise RegressionTo conduct a stepwise regression analysis, click on the Stat button on the main menubar, then click on Regression, and click on Stepwise (see Figure 16). The resultingdialog box appears in Figure 19. Specify the dependent variable in the Responsebox and the independent variables in the stepwise model in the Predictors box. Asan option, you can select the value of α to use in the analysis by clicking on theMethods button and specifying the value. (The default is α .15.) Click OK to viewthe stepwise regression results.To conduct an all-possible-regressions selection analysis, click on the Stat buttonon the main menu bar, then click on Regression, and click on Best Subsets (seeFigure 16). Specify the dependent variable in the Response box and the independentvariables in the Predictors box shown on the resulting menu. Click OK to view theall-possible-regression selection results.9. Residual Analysis and Influence DiagnosticsTo conduct a residual analysis, click on the Stat button on the MINITAB main menubar, then click on Regression, and then click on Regression again (see Figure 16).Figure 19 StepwiseRegression dialog box 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 10

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Logistic Regression6:28 P.M.11Figure 20 Residual Plotsdialog boxFigure 21 RegressionResiduals Storage dialogboxThe resulting dialog box appears in Figure 17. Specify the dependent variable in theResponse box and the independent variables in the model in the Predictors box. Toproduce residual plots, click on the Graphs button. The resulting menu appears asshown in Figure 20.To produce a histogram, select Histogram of residuals; to produce a normalprobability plot, select Normal plot of residuals; to produce a plot of residualsagainst predicted values, select Residuals versus fits; and to produce a plot ofresiduals against one or more of the independent variables, put the independentvariables to be plotted in the Residuals versus the variables box. Click OK to viewthe plots.To produce influence diagnostics, click on the Storage button in the Regressiondialog box (Figure 17). The resulting menu appears as shown in Figure 21.Click the influence diagnostics you want to save (e.g., Cook’s distance andHi [leverages]), then click OK to return to the Regression dialog box. Now clickOK. The influence diagnostics will appear as additional columns on the MINITABworksheet.10. Logistic RegressionTo conduct a logistic regression analysis for a two-level (binary) dependent qualitative variable, click on the Stat button on the MINITAB main menu bar, thenclick on Regression, and finally click on Binary Logistic Regression, as shown inFigure 22. The resulting dialog box appears in Figure 23. 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 11

William Mendenhall12both01.texV1 - 09/20/20106:28 P.M.MINITAB TutorialFigure 22 MINITABmenu options for LogisticRegressionFigure 23 LogisticRegression dialog boxSpecify the dependent variable in the Response box and the terms in the logisticmodel in the Model box. (Note: If your model includes interaction and/or squaredterms, you must create and add these higher-order variables to the MINITAB worksheet before running a regression analysis. You can do this by clicking the Calc buttonon the MINITAB main menu and selecting the Calculator option.) If any of theindependent variables are qualitative, put them in the Factors box. MINITAB willautomatically create dummy variables for these qualitative predictors. After makingthe variable selections, click the OK button to view the logistic regression results.11. One-Way Analysis of VarianceTo conduct a one-way ANOVA for a completely randomized design, click on theStat button on the MINITAB main menu bar, then click on ANOVA, and finallyclick on One-Way, as shown in Figure 24. The resulting dialog box appears inFigure 25. 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 12

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010One-Way Analysis of Variance6:28 P.M.13Figure 24 MINITABmenu options for One-WayANOVAFigure 25 One-WayANOVA dialog boxSpecify the dependent variable in the Response box and the qualitative variablethat represents the single factor in the Factor box. To perform multiple comparisonsof treatment means, click the Comparisons button to obtain the dialog box shownin Figure 26. On this box, select the comparison method (e.g., Tukey) and thecomparison-wise error rate percentage (e.g., specify 5 for a 5% significance level).Click OK to return to the One-Way ANOVA dialog box (Figure 25). Click OK toview the ANOVA results.To perform a test of equality of variances, click the Stat button on the MINITABmain menu bar, then click ANOVA, and finally click Test for Equal Variances (seeFigure 24). The dialog box shown in Figure 27 appears. Specify the dependentvariable in the Response box and the qualitative variable that represents the singlefactor in the Factors box. Specify the Confidence level, then click OK to view thetest results. 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 13

William Mendenhall14both01.texV1 - 09/20/20106:28 P.M.MINITAB TutorialFigure 26 MultipleComparisons dialog box forANOVAFigure 27 Test for EqualVariances dialog box12. Analysis of Variance for Factorial DesignsTo conduct an ANOVA for a two-factor factorial design, click on the Stat button onthe MINITAB main menu bar, then click on ANOVA, and finally click on Two-Way(see Figure 24). The resulting dialog box appears in Figure 28.Specify the dependent variable in the Response box, the first qualitative factorin the Row Factor box, and the second qualitative factor in the Column Factor box.A model with main effects and factor interaction will automatically be fit. Click onOK to view the ANOVA results.For more general factorial designs, click on the Stat button on the MINITABmain menu bar, then click on ANOVA, and finally click on General Linear Model(see Figure 24). The resulting dialog box appears in Figure 29.Specify the dependent variable in the Responses box and the terms in thefactorial model in the Model box. (Note: Interaction terms are indicated by placing anasterisk between the variables that are to be interacted [e.g., RATIO SUPPLY].) 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 14

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Time Series Forecasting6:28 P.M.15Figure 28 Two-WayANOVA dialog boxFigure 29 General LinearModel dialog boxTo run multiple comparisons of means for treatment main effects, click theComparisons button. The dialog box shown in Figure 30 appears. Specify themain effects to be tested in the Terms box and select the comparison method(e.g., Bonferroni), then click OK to return to the Factorial ANOVA dialog box(Figure 29). Click OK to run and view the ANOVA results.13. Time Series ForecastingTo conduct the Durbin–Watson test for autocorrelated errors in a model for timeseries data, first specify the model to be fit. That is, click on the Stat button onthe MINITAB main menu bar, then click on Regression, and click on Regressionagain, as shown in Figure 16. Specify the dependent and independent variables inthe model on the resulting dialog box (see Figure 17.) Once the model has beenspecified, click on the Options button on the Regression dialog box to obtain themenu shown in Figure 31. 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 15

William Mendenhall16both01.texV1 - 09/20/20106:28 P.M.MINITAB TutorialFigure 30 General LinearModel Comparisons dialogboxFigure 31 RegressionOptions dialog box for theDurbin–Watson testCheck the Durbin–Watson statistic box, then click OK to return to the Regression dialog box. Click OK to view the results.To produce forecasts using moving averages, exponential smoothing, or theHolt–Winters method, click the Stat button on the MINITAB main menu bar, thenclick on Time Series. This will produce the menu list shown in Figure 32. The optionsinclude Moving Average, Single Exp Smoothing (i.e., the exponential smoothingmethod covered in this text), Double Exp Smoothing (i.e., the Holt-Winter’s methodwith trend), and Winter’s Method (i.e., the Holt–Winter’s method with trend andseasonality). For example, clicking Single Exp Smoothing will result in the dialogbox shown in Figure 33.Select the quantitative variable to be smoothed and place it in the Variable boxand set the value of the smoothing constant in the Weight to use in smoothing box.Click OK to view the results.(Note: Time series models with a first-order autoregressive error term are notavailable in MINITAB.) 2012 Pearson Education Inc.Page 16

William Mendenhallboth01.texV1 - 09/20/2010Time Series ForecastingFigure 32 MINITABmenu options for TimeSeries ForecastingFigure 33 ExponentialSmoothing dialog box 2012 Pearson Education Inc.6:28 P.M.17Page 17

6 MINITAB Tutorial Figure 11 Scatterplot dialog boxes 5. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations To obtain numerical descriptive measures for a quantitative variable (e.g., mean, standard deviation, etc.), click on the Stat button on the main menu bar, then click on Display Descriptive Statistics (see Figure 12). The resulting dialog box appears